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Vojnosanitetski pregled
2018, vol. 75, br. 7, str. 664-674
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
objavljeno: 09/08/2018
doi: 10.2298/VSP160914381P
Creative Commons License 4.0
Samoprocena zdravlja starih u dve evropske zemlje brzog starenja - dokazi iz Italije i Srbije
aUniversity of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Oxford, United Kingdom
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za socijalnu medicinu
cUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za medicinsku statistiku i informatiku

e-adresa: giovanni.piumatti@gmail.com

Sažetak

Uvod/Cilj. Samoprocena zdravlja (Self-rated health - SPH) je široko prihvaćen postupak za potrebe komparacije zdravstvenog stanja različitih zemalja. Povezanost socijalno-demografskih osobina sa SPH starijih osoba uočena je u nacionalnim istraživanjima. Međutim, ova istraživanja retko obuhvataju poređenja povezanosti zdravstvenog ponašanja (tj. navika u ishrani, pušenju i konzumiranju alkohola) sa zdravstvenim stanjem (tj. prisustvom hronične bolesti). Cilj je bio da se ispita razlika u SPH starih osoba u Italiji i Srbiji, kao i i da se odredi uloga prediktora SPH, posebno zdravstvenog ponašanja u obe zemlje. Metode. U okviru nacionalnih istraživanja zdravlja u Italiji i Srbiji, sprovedenih na reprezentativnim uzorcima domaćinstava u 2013. godini, posmatrane su osobe starije od 65 godina: 4 406 Italijana i 3 539 Srba. U modelima multivarijantnih logističkih regresionih analiza SRH je predstavljala zavisnu varijablu, a nezavisne prediktore činile su socijalno-demografske osobine ispitanika, obeležja u vezi sa zdravstvenim stanjem i ona koja predstavljaju faktore zdravstvenog ponašanja. Rezultati. U obe zemlje manji broj ispitanika starijih od 65 godina procenio je svoje zdravlje kao dobro i veoma dobro (Italijani: 30,3% i Srbi 22,3%) u odnosu na evropski prosek (36,9%). U logističkim regresijama uočeo je da je samoprocenjeno zdravlje češće lošije u Srbiji nego u Italiji. Ipak u oba nacionalna uzorka značajni prediktori samoprocenjenog zdravlja bili su isti: pol, obrazovanje, hronične bolesti i ograničenje dnevnih aktivnosti. Posmatrajući zdravstveno ponašanje, u Italiji je unos povrća bio značajno povezan sa osećanjem boljeg zdravlja, dok je u Srbiji istu povezanost imao unos voća u svakodnevnoj ishrani. Zaključak. Istraživanje pokazuje da postoje faktori zdravstvenog ponašanja koji su udruženi sa boljom SPH u populaciji starijoj od 65 godina, ali i da se oni razlikuju među zemljama. Neophodno je da donosioci odluka o implementaciji međunarodnih preventivnih strategija uvaže posebne specifičnosti zemalja pri organizaciji intervencija za populaciju starih.

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