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Facta universitatis - series: Physical Education and Sport
2010, vol. 8, br. 2, str. 141-148
jezik rada: engleski
pregledni članak

Biodinamičke karakteristike razvoja maksimalne snage
aFaculty of Sport, Ljubljana, Slovenia
bFaculty of Kinesiology, Zagreb, Croatia

e-adresa: milan.coh@fsp.uni-lj.si

Sažetak

Cilj ovog preglednog rada je da poveže neke od najznačajnijih otkrića na polju razvoja maksimalne snage sa aspekta biomehaničkih, motoričkih i neuro-mišićnih faktora. Maskimalna brzina je kompleksna biomotorička sposobnost, koja se manifestuje u sportskim situacijama i koja je važan faktor uspeha u različitim sportskim disciplinama. Efikasnost maksimalne brzine definiše se u pogledu učestalost i dužine jednog koraka. Oba parametra zavise jedan od drugog; takođe zavise i od procesa centralne regulacije motoričkog stereotipa. Sa biomehaničke tačke gledišta, trčeći korak je osnovna strukturalna jedinica koja zavisi od ekcentrično-koncentričnog mišićnog ciklusa. Upotreba elastične snage u kompleksu mišića i tetiva i predaktivaciji m. Gastrocnemius-a je jako bitna za ovaj segment. Maksimalna brzina je veoma ograničena nasledna biomotorička sposobnost koja se odlikuje umanjenom sposobnošću za kontrolisanje pokreta. Mali mozak, ko-aktivacija mišića u kinetičkom lancu i učestalost aktivacije motoričkih jedinica igraju važnu ulogu u kontrolisanju aktivacija agonista i antagonista. Primarni gol treniranja je da se stvori optimalni model motoričkog stereotipa u zoni maksimalne brzine. Ovakav proces mora se odvijati na duge staze i mora biti sistematski sproveden.

Ključne reči

sprint; motorički stereotip; start; kontrola pokreta; EMG aktivacija

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