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Hemijska industrija
2013, vol. 67, iss. 1, pp. 17-25
article language: Serbian
document type: Professional Paper
Properties and synthesis of milrinone
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy



Study of the Synthesis, Structure and Activity of Natural and Synthetic Organic Compounds (MESTD - 172013)


Milrinone, 1,6-dihydro-2-methyl-6-oxo-(3,4’-bipyridine)-5-carbonitrile, is a positive inotropic cardiotonic agent with vasodilator properties that acts as selective phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. Trade names of milrinone are Primacor, Corotrop, Corotrope, and Milrila. Milrinone, an amrinone derivative, is 20 to 50 times more active than amrinone and possesses reduced propensity to side effects. The use of milrinone has created controversy in the medical as the result of increased mortality rate among patients that received high amounts of milrinone in oral form. Research show that it can be beneficial for patients with severe congestive heart failure when used as short-time intravenous therapy. Milrinone properties, stability, as well as mechanism of action and synthesis under laboratory and industry conditions have been described in this paper. For industrial purposes milrinone is synthesized by condensation of cyanoacetamide with 4-(dimethylamino)-3-(4-pyridinyl)-3-buten-2-one and 4-ethoxy-3-(4-pyridinyl)-3-buten-2-one in presence of a base, or by the reaction of 1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propanone with ethoxymethylenmalononitrile or 4-alkoxy-3-(4-pyridinyl)-3-buten-2-one with malononitrile without the use of external base. The starting compound for these syntheses is 4-picoline. Alternative synthesis of milrinone starts from 2-methyl-3-(4-pyridylidiene)-1,1,5-tricyano-1,4pentadiene-5-carboxamide and 2-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-3,4’-bipyridine-5-carboxamide. Lastly, methods for milrinone synthesis in laboratory, injection preparation and purification have been summarized.



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