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Medicinski podmladak
2016, vol. 67, br. 2, str. 96-101
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: originalan članak
doi:10.5937/medpodm1602096A

Creative Commons License 4.0
Uticaj različitih karakterisitka treninga na oporavak srčane frekvencije kod vrhunskih sportista
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet
bMedicinski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu + Institut za medicinsku fiziologiju 'Rihard Burijan'

e-adresa: andjic.radovan@gmail.com

Sažetak

Uvod: Kao jedna od prednosti redovne fizičke aktivnosti navodi se niža srčana frekvencija u miru i njen brži oporavak nakon testa maksimalnog opterećenja, kao posledica jačeg parasimpatičkog (vagusnog) tonusa. Oporavak srčane frekvencije se koristi kao pouzdan parametar fizičke utreniranosti, ali i u prognostičke svrhe kao parametar rizika za obolevanje od kardiovaskularnih bolesti. Cilj: Cilj ove studije je da pokaže postojanje statistički značajnih razlika u oporavku srčanih frekvencija nakon maksimalnog opterećenja i razlike frekvencija u mirovanju između različitih grupa vrhunskih sportista. Materijal i metode: Ovom studijom je obuhvaćeno 575 odraslih (23,1 ± 4,3 godina) sportista muškog pola, podeljenih u četiri grupe sportova: sportove veštine, snage, mešovitih disciplina i izdržljivosti. Svi ispitanici su izveli maksimalni, progresivni kardiopulmonalni test fizičkim opterećenjem na traci za trčanje. Oporavak srčane frekvencije u prvom (ΔHRR1) i trećem minutu (ΔHRR3) definisan je razlikom maksimalne srčane frekvencije i frekvencije u prvom, odnosno trećem minutu po okončanju vežbanja. Rezultati: Statistički značajno niže vrednosti srčane frekvencije u mirovanju zabeležene su u grupi izdržljivosti (56,2 ± 10,6 min-1) u odnosu na grupe sportova veština, snage i mešovitih disciplina (62,9 ± 11,4; 61,5 ± 10,0; 59,9 ± 10,4 min-1) (p = 0,05). I ΔHRR1 je bio značajno viši u grupi izdržljivosti (33,5 ± 14,3 min-1) u odnosu na grupe sportova veštine, snage i mešovitih disciplina (24,3 ± 10,9; 25,5 ± 11,2; 27,8 ± 15,6 min-1) (p = 0,05). Vrednosti ΔHRR3 su bile značajno više u grupi snage, mešovitih disciplina i izdržljivosti (74,8 ± 14,3; 79,5 ± 12,7; 79,4 ± 12,6 min-1) u odnosu na grupu veština (67,3 ± 16,1 min-1) (p = 0,05). Zaključak: Treniranje sportova iz grupe izdržljivosti najviše doprinosi smanjenju srčane frekvencije u mirovanju i brzini njenog oporavka u prvom minutu nakon vežbanja zbog preovlađujućeg parasimpatičkog tonusa.

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