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Inovacije u nastavi - časopis za savremenu nastavu
2019, vol. 32, br. 4, str. 81-96
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni članak
objavljeno: 03/06/2020
doi: 10.5937/inovacije1904081S
Creative Commons License 4.0
Stavovi makedonskih učenika o zaštiti čovekove sredine u periodu od 1995. do 2016. godine
Univerzitet Jugoistočna Evropa, Institut za životnu sredinu i zdravlje, Tetovo, Republika Severna Makedonija

e-adresa: m.srbinovski@seeu.edu.mk

Sažetak

Postoje dva razloga za povećanje kvaliteta životne sredine u Republici Severnoj Makedoniji: (a) naša država suočava se sa velikim izazovima u oblasti zaštite i poboljšanja životne sredine, posebno u pogledu zagađenja vazduha (npr. neki gradovi u Severnoj Makedoniji su među najzagađenijim u svetu) i (b) kao zemlja koja teži priključivanju Evropskoj uniji, nacionalne institucije imaju obavezu da ispunjavaju kriterijume EU u ovoj oblasti. U ovoj situaciji važno je razvijati svest i pozitivan odnos prema životnoj sredini kao prediktorima ekološkog ponašanja. Glavna svrha ovog istraživanja je analiza stavova makedonskih studenata prema životnoj sredini u protekle dvadeset dve godine. Prvi korak u istraživanju bio je formulisanje određenih jasnih, nedvosmislenih i strukturiranih pitanja. Drugi korak bio je temeljna pretraga literature kako bi se našli relevantni radovi (u elektronskoj formi i štampani) bez jezičkih ograničenja. Treći korak je procena kvaliteta istraživanja. Sledeći korak podrazumevao je rezimiranje dokaza ili sintezu podataka. Ovaj korak se sastoji od tabeliranja karakteristika i rezultata istraživanja, kao i upotrebe statističkih metoda za utvrđivanje razlika između istraživanja. Peti korak bio je tumačenje nalaza. Analiza podataka izvršena je, kako u kontekstu socijalnoekonomskih uslova, tako i u kontekstu formalnog obrazovanja u Republici Severnoj Makedoniji. Za prikupljanje podataka vezanih za navedeni period proučavanja korišćena su tri različita instrumenta: Skala stavova - SA-3 (Kundačina, 1991), Skala stavova - SA-6 (Srbinovski, 2001) i Nova skala ekološke paradigme - skala NEP (Dunlap et al., 2000). Uključen je uzorak od šest hiljada trista osamdeset sedam učenika iz četrdeset šest osnovnih i osamdeset šest srednjih škola deset šest srednjih škola. Prosečne vrednosti stavova o životnoj sredini su u opsegu 2,84-3,90. Maksimalna vrednost zabeležena je na početku anketnog perioda, a najniža vrednost dobijena je tokom poslednjeg anketiranja. Prosek stavova učenika za posmatrani period je približno 3,50 ili 70%, što ukazuje da su ispitanici imali umereno pozitivan stav prema okruženju. Kada je reč o istraživačkom instrumentu, možemo podeliti period istraživanja u tri potperioda: potperiod 1995/96-1997/98, kada je primenjen SA-3; potperiod 1999/2000-2011/12, kada je primenjen instrument SA-6, i potperiod 2015-2016, kada je primenjena skala NEP. Stepen odnosa učenika prema okruženju u prvom i drugom potperiodu je oko 3,89 ili 77,80%, odnosno 3,47 ili 69,40%. To pokazuje da učenici visoko cene ravnotežu u okruženju, što je preduslov za opstanak svih živih bića, uključujući i ljude. Većina učenika takođe smatra da je čovek najodgovorniji faktor za zaštitu životne sredine. Nivo stavova učenika prema okruženju u poslednjem potperiodu (2015-2016) približno je 2,84 ili 56,80%. Pojedini autori (Robotom & Hart, 1995) smatraju da su istorijski, društveni i politički konteksti u kojima se odvijaju pojedinačne i grupne akcije ključni faktori koji moraju biti uključeni u ovu vrstu istraživanja. Među faktorima koji utiču na stav učenika prema okruženju u makedonskom kontekstu su socijalno-ekonomski uslovi (razumevanje, ekološka svest, socijalna sigurnost, ekonomski razvoj) i formalno obrazovanje (nastavni programi, didaktički materijali - udžbenici, znanje o životnoj sredini i nastavni proces). Pošto se stavovi ljudi prema životnoj sredini menjaju veoma sporo, u mladim umovima učenika trebalo bi kreirati stavove o životnoj sredini već u nižim razredima osnovne škole, što je pre moguće. Rezultati ovog istraživanja pružaju zanimljiv uvid u stavove učenika tokom dužeg perioda koristeći različite skale. Osim toga, u radu iznosimo nekoliko uvida koji mogu biti predmet proučavanja u budućim istraživanjima i kojima bi se prevazišla određena ograničenja u ovom istraživanju. Istraživanje predstavljeno u radu moglo bi biti od koristi akterima obrazovanja za životnu sredinu za uspostavljanje efikasnijeg dijaloga sa širom obrazovnom zajednicom. Dalja istraživanja su potrebna kako bi se razjasnila realna kompleksnost u razvoju stavova učenika prema životnoj sredini, uključujući i druge faktore korišćenjem sofisticiranijih instrumenata, npr. NEP skale, revidirane NEP skale, 2-MEV skale, revidirane 2-MEV skale itd. Bilo bi vrlo zanimljivo analizirati rezultate metodom metaanalize (npr. Šmit-Hanters postupkom) i formulisati model stavova o životnoj sredini. Razvijanje modela koji nastoji da uvrsti sve faktore možda nije izvodljivo ni korisno, ali smatramo da može pomoći u rasvetljavanju ovog složenog polja.

Ključne reči

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