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Medicinski pregled
2016, vol. 69, br. 11-12, str. 385-390
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: kratki članak
doi:10.2298/MPNS1612385L


Uloga karotidnih telašca kao perifernih hemoreceptora u regulaciji fizioloških i patofizioloških stanja
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, KBC 'Zemun'
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet
cUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za reumatologiju
dInstitute for Health Protection of the Ministry of Interior, Department of Cardiology, Belgrade
eUniversity Clinical Hospital Center 'Bežamijska Kosa', Belgrade + Clinical Center of Serbia, Clinic for Lung Diseases, Belgrade

e-adresa: lazovic.biljana@gmail.com

Sažetak

Uvod. Periferni hemoreceptori glavni su senzori za kiseonik u ljudskom telu, a takođe su poznati i kao interoreceptori jer su povezani sa unutrašnjim organima koji se nalaze u luku aorte, kao i u telu a. carotis communis. Uloga perifernih hemoreceptora u regulaciji fizioloških stanja. Zna se da stimulacija perfernih hemoreceptora u eksperimentalnim uslovima hipoksije, fizičkog napora, pa čak i tokom nekih bolesti izaziva refleksno posredovano pojačanje ventilacije, koje prati povećanje mišićne simpatičke aktivnosti, sa ciljem održavanja tkivne homeostaze kiseonika, kao i homeostaze glukoze. Osim toga, periferni hemoreceptori interreaguju sa centralnim hemoreceptorima koji su odgovorni za promene u nivou ugljendioksida i oni se međusobno nadopunjuju. Uloga perifernih hemoreceptora u regulaciji patoloških stanja. Istraživanja respiratorne funkcije u mnogim patološkim procesima, kao što su hipertenzija, opstruktivna slip-apnea, kongestivna srčana insuficijencija i mnoge druge bolesti i stanja, a koja se odlikuju povećanom perifernom hemosenzitivnošću i poremećajem funkcije simpatičkog nervnog sistema, jednoglasno naglašavaju ulogu perifernih hemoreceptora tokom ovih procesa. Imajući prethodno navedeno u vidu, uloga perifernih hemoreceptora je važna kod pacijenata sa navedenim bolestima. Zaključak. Značaj perifernih hemoreceptora u kontroli disanja je i dalje nepoznat, uprkos brojnim naučnim pokušajima da se reši ovo pitanje. Glavni cilj ovog rada bio je sažet prikaz najnovijih istraživanja o značaju hemoreceptora, osvetljavajući njihovu ulogu u održavanju homeostaze kiseonika kod bolesnika sa hipoksijom uzrokovanom bilo fiziološkim ili patofiziološkim stanjima.

Ključne reči

karotidna telašca; hemoreceptorske ćelije; hipoksija; vežbanje; hipertenzija; kiseonik; homeostaza

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