Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:7
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:3
article: 7 from 69  
Back back to result list
Godišnjak Fakulteta sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
2019, iss. 24, pp. 93-106
article language: Serbian
document type: Review Paper
published on: 26/05/2020
doi: 10.5937/gfsfV1924093Z
Sudden cardiac death: Prevention and recommendations for physical activity
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sports and Physical Education

Abstract

Physical activity provides many well-documented health benefits, while physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In order to achieve these benefits, one must expose himself to relatively moderate physical activity. However, many athletes and recreationists go beyond these limits and engage in higher level of physical activity. Occasionally, intense physical activity is associated with sudden death in individuals with concealed heart disease. Despite the media attention provided by such accident, the reputation of physical activity remains intact, as most deaths can be explained by a basic cardiac abnormality where exercise is only the trigger of a fatal arrhythmia, not the actual cause of death. The paradox is that athletes with these abnormalities show identical performance in the form of minute heart volume compared to healthy individuals. In athletes younger than 35, congenital heart disease, especially hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and congenital coronary artery abnormalities, are the leading cause of sudden cardiac death, while most athletes older than 35 die due to atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries. Pre-competition screening with apparently healthy individuals is the only way to prevent sudden cardiac death in sports. When diagnosing a specific condition of the cardiovascular system, it is necessary to determine the risk of sudden cardiac death associated with continued physical activity and competitive sports activity, and to define clear disqualification criteria for each athlete individually.

Keywords

heart; pre-competition screening; ECG; defibrillator; exercise

References

Asif, I.M., Harmon, K.G. (2017) Incidence and Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Death: New Updates for Athletic Departments. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 9(3): 268-279
Bohm, P., Scharhag, J., Meyer, T. (2016) Data from a nationwide registry on sports-related sudden cardiac deaths in Germany. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23(6): 649-656
Corrado, D., Basso, C., Thiene, G. (2012) Sudden cardiac death in athletes: What is the role of screening?. Current opinion in cardiology, 27(1): 41-48
Deljanin-Ilić, M., Ilić, S., Đorđević, D., Zdravković, M., Ilić, V. (2008) Evaluation of myocardial function in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes and hypertensive patients. Medicinski pregled, vol. 61, br. 3-4, str. 178-182
Dennis, M., Elder, A., Semsarian, C., Orchard, J., Brouwer, I., Puranik, R. (2018) A 10-year review of sudden death during sporting activities. Heart Rhythm, 15(10): 1477-1483
Drca, N., Wolk, A., Jensen-Urstad, M., Larsson, S.C. (2014) Atrial fibrillation is associated with different levels of physical activity levels at different ages in men. Heart, 100(13): 1037-1042
Elosua, R., Arquer, A., Mont, L., Sambola, A., Molina, L., García-Morán, E., Marrugat, J. (2006) Sport practice and the risk of lone atrial fibrillation: A case-control study. International Journal of Cardiology, 108(3): 332-337
Emery, M.S., Kovacs, R.J. (2018) Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes. JACC: Heart Failure, 6(1): 30-40
Ilić, V., Mazić, S. (2008) Kardivaskularni poremećaji kao uzrok iznenadne srčane smrti kod sportista. Fizička kultura, vol. 62, br. 1-2, str. 3-28
La, G.A., Baggish, A.L., Knuuti, J.L., Prior, D.L., Sharma, S.L., Heidbuchel, H., Thompson, P.D. (2013) Cardiac Imaging and Stress Testing Asymptomatic Athletes to Identify Those at Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 6(9): 993-1007
Macura, M. (2017) Osnovi prve pomoći u nastavi fizičkog vaspitanja. Beograd: Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
Mazić, S., Ilić, V., Đelić, M., Aranđelović, A. (2011) Iznenadna srčana smrt mladih sportista. Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo, vol. 139, br. 5-6, str. 394-401
Merghani, A., Malhotra, A., Sharma, S. (2016) The U-shaped relationship between exercise and cardiac morbidity. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, 26(3): 232-240
Millar, L., Sheikh, N., Sharma, S. (2012) Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Practice of Sports Medicine. Colloquium Series on Genomic and Molecular Medicine, 1(2): 1-162
Narayanan, K., Bougouin, W., Sharifzadehgan, A., Waldmann, V., Karam, N., Marijon, E., Jouven, X. (2017) Sudden Cardiac Death During Sports Activities in the General Population. Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics, 9(4): 559-567
Sharma, S., Merghani, A., Mont, L. (2015) Exercise and the heart: The good, the bad, and the ugly. European Heart Journal, 36(23): 1445-1453
Solberg, E.E., Borjesson, M., Sharma, S., Papadakis, M., Wilhelm, M., Drezner, J.A., Harmon, K.G., Alonso, J.M., Heidbuchel, H., Dugmore, D., Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M., Mellwig, K.P., Carre, F., Rasmusen, H., Niebauer, J., Behr, E.R., Thiene, G., Sheppard, M.N., Basso, C. (2016) Sudden cardiac arrest in sports - need for uniform registration: A Position Paper from the Sport Cardiology Section of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 23(6): 657-667
Thiene, G., Corrado, D., Basso, C. (2016) Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young and Athletes. Milan: Springer
Thompson, P.D., Franklin, B.A., Baladay, G.J., Blair, N., Carrado, D., Estes, M. (2007) Exercise and acute cardiovascular events: Placing the risks into perspective: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation, (115), 2358-2368
Vora, A., Burkule, N., Contractor, A., Bhargava, K. (2018) Prevention of sudden cardiac death in athletes, sportspersons and marathoners in India. Indian Heart Journal, 70(1): 137-145