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Medicinski pregled
2019, vol. 72, br. 11-12, str. 367-373
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
objavljeno: 06/06/2020
doi: 10.2298/MPNS1912367B
Poremećaji zdravlja i povratak na posao obolelih lekara - uvid iz istraživanja lekara za lekare
aKarolinska Institute, Department of Oncology/Pathology, Stockholm, Sweden + Claremont Graduate University, School of Community and Global Health, Claremont, California, USA + University of Southern California School of Medicine, Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, Los Angeles, California
bAmbulatory Health Care Center, Division for Occupational Health Protection, Novi Sad

e-adresa: karen.belkic@ki.se

Sažetak

Uvod. Visoke stope obolevanja do sindroma izgaranja, komplikacija arterijske hipertenzije i samoubistava među lekarima ukazuju na značaj profesionalne etiologije. Uopštena procena uslova rada nije dovoljna. Zato ukazujemo na to kako sami lekari, teorijski opravdanim postupcima, doprinose rasvetljavanju ove problematike. Modeli procene profesionalnih stresora metodama koje su kreirali lekari za lekare. Instrumenti bazirani na modelu Zahtevi i resursi posla (engl. Job Demands-Resources model) razvili su radiolozi i onkolozi, kako bi smanjili sindrom izgaranja. Ključni faktori su uvažavanje uloženog rada i iskrena, dobronamerna komunikacija starijih kolega sa mlađim. Indeks profesionalnih stresora specifičan za lekare, zasnovan na modelu ukupnog opterećenja, procenjenog kognitivnom ergonomijom, takođe su razvili lekari. Ukupan indeks opterećenja stresorima radnog mesta visok je kod lekara sa kardiovaskularnim oboljenjima. Dugo radno vreme, ubrzavanje rada i pretnja gubitkom posla su prisutniji kod obolelih. Anesteziolozi i hirurzi imaju najveće opterećenje, uz potrebu za intervencijom na smanjenju noćnog rada radi snižavanja rizika do obolevanja. Povezanost profesionalnih stresora i kardiovaskularnog rizika je značajnija kod žena lekara. Povratak na zdravije radno mesto. Vrlo retke su interventne studije povratka na radno mesto obolelih lekara od sindroma izgaranja, kardiovaskularnih ili malignih oboljenja. Skraćivanje radnog vremena i diskusija o problemima na radu mogu biti korisni. Klinička iskustva ukazuju da Indeks profesionalnih stresora za lekare pomaže povratku na zdravije radno mesto. Zaključak. Specifični instrumenti koje su razvili lekari za lekare, zasnovani na modelima profesionalnih stresora, mogu poboljšati uslove rada i zdravlje lekara. Nalaženje najbolje strategije povratka na posao za obolele lekare ostaje i dalje izazov. Poboljšanje uslova rada daje pozitivne rezultate. Povratak na zdravije radno mesto osnažuje lekare i često popravlja radnu klimu.

Ključne reči

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