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Nasleđe
2008, br. 9, str. 193-210
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: istoriografski prilog
objavljeno: 14/01/2009
Podizanje spomenika pobede na Terazijama

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
In the XIX century ideologues of the Serbian nation and the intellectuals of Romanticism accepted as a truism of the national ideology the idea of the revival of the golden age of Serbian medieval state - an empire bequeathed by Nemanja, only temporarily subjugated by the Turkish invasion following the Battle of Kosovo. Taken out of its historical context, the Battle of Kosovo at the time of the formation of the new, independent Serbian state, was given a new ideological and political interpretation and an outstanding place in the spiritual life of the Serbian nation. Therefore the repossession of southern Serbian provinces became a prime political ideal whose achievement not only confirmed historical continuation of the nation, but also the dynastic legitimacy of its rulers. Political circumstances and the Balkan wars in the early XX century brought about the final victory against the Turks and the fulfillment of the centuries long dream of Serbian people. Holy Serbian land 'an empire bequeathed by Nemanja' which reached its golden age during the reign of tsar Dušan, was finally liberated. King Peter I the Redeemer was pronounced the first ruler who fulfilled the Kosovo pledge and became a legitimate successor to his crown. In accordance with the needs of official politics, immediately after the end of the Balkan wars, an initiative was launched for a monument to be erected in Belgrade, celebrating final victory against the Turks. Understanding capabilities of a public sculpture to serve as a primary medium for the formation of the national cultural and political identity as well as its collective self-definition city political elite for this ambitious state undertaking selected artist Ivan Meštrović, without prior public competition and careful deliberations. The statue was to be placed in Terazije Square. The awakening of national awareness through artistic visualization of national strength in the spirit of the heroic Kosovo period, was given full expression in the Vidovdan Fragments by Ivan Meštrović. Educated in the West in the spirit of modern European tradition, taking advantage of the pluralism of the chosen art form Meštrović in his sculpture combined the modern with the national - the modern in the creative process applied and the national in its content and ideation. As a magnificent expression of the national culture the Vidovdan Fragments created a sensation at the International Exhibition in Rome in 1911, thus becoming a powerful medium for state-politics agitation. The monumental heroic style of Ivan Meštrović in the years prior to the First World War was declared to be nationally authentic, purebred artistic expression, and the artist himself was considered a national genius - thus every artistic competition in which he took part was a foregone conclusion. The selection of the main city square Terazije for the placement of the monument, and the change of its name into the Square of the Crown Prince, was suited to the national and dynastic significance of the victory won. The erection of the monument to Victory on the circular island in the centre of the square would place it at the level with the monument to the founder of the dynasty - Karadjordje at Kalemegdan, in this way orienting the ideological emanation of the new monument towards the sculpture in Kalemegdan. This would confirm the dynastic and monarchic character of Terazije, formed as far back as the XIX century, and at the same time create a political and artistic ensemble providing adequate visual support for the dynastic striving for political affirmation and power. The Monument to Liberty, as the artist called it, was envisaged as a fountain of monumental size, consisting of four lion sculptures carrying the basin at their backs from which a column arose with a bronze standing sculpture of the Victor. Changed political circumstances which presented themselves after the First World War overshadowed the significance of the avenged Kosovo. The only remaining part of the impressive idea was the central sculpture of the Victor which found its place at Kalemegdan following more than a decade of negotiations and various proposals as to where it should be placed. In honour of the tenth anniversary of the victory on the Thessalonica front, on 7 October 1928 the new section of the Sava Alley was opened to the public and the monument at the time called the Herald of Victory was unveiled. In the subsequent decades the original meaning of the monument was erased from collective memory and it became the Victor, the symbol of the city of Belgrade. In this way, although it destiny proved to be far different from the one originally envisaged, Mestrović' sculpture preserved and confirmed its ideational content.

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