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Nasleđe
2009, br. 10, str. 11-40
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan

Prestonička urbana memorija i fleksibilna nacionalna geografija - sađenje mladice Takovskog grma u Beogradskom Dvorskom parku
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(ne postoji na srpskom)
The symbolic politics of modern states' official representative culture focus on the capital city which becomes the central place in mapping patriotic space. In conformity with the widely accepted pars pro toto model, the capital city is not only the center of the state but also its embodiment in which the politics of space and the space of politics are intertwined. Official representative culture seeks to build into the capital city's general urban memory matrix the topoi of memory that symbolize the basic elements of its shared identity, thereby transforming it, more or less, into a prescribed mental map. A similar strategic process of building ideological memorials into the capital city's urban matrix is observable in Belgrade and traceable from the early 1840s when the city became the official capital of the Principality of Serbia. In monarchies, such as the Principality and subsequently the Kingdom of Serbia was, construction of the capital's memory structure is largely centered on the ruler and dynasty. Under the Obrenović dynasty, an important role in constructing such a structure of Belgrade was assigned to the memory of the Takovo Uprising, stereotypically interpreted as the key event in national history ushering into the restoration of what was perceived as the golden age, the medieval Serbian state. The day the Uprising was raised at Takovo in 1815 was proclaimed a national holiday, popularly known as Serbian Flowery Sunday. Its annual celebration in the capital was granted a markedly performative significance and set the model followed by locally occasioned celebrations. A distinctive place in the process of shaping the capital city's Takovo memory is occupied by the planting of a sprout of the Takovo bush in the middle of the royal park. According to the original tradition, which was soon promoted to a historiographic memory topos in the writings of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, Leopold Ranke and Sima Milutinović, the decision about the uprising had been made in front of the parish church of St George. In the subsequent mythic construction of the memory topos, the event was increasingly associated with an old oak tree conceived of in the sacral topography of Takovo as being sacred and termed 'bush'. In the second reign of the Obrenović dynasty, the Takovo bush was elevated to a sacred national and dynastic tree, and in 1887 a memorial commemorating the uprising was set up next to it. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, the cult of the Takovo bush became the focus of the symbolic politics of state and dynastic representative culture. The acorns of the Takovo bush became a sort of memorabilia and were taken as souvenirs of patriotic pilgrimages to Takovo and planted in private gardens and courtyards. A sprout of the Takovo bush was planted at the center of the royal park in Belgrade in 1900. This ritual act, which was paid due attention in the patriotic press, made the royal park into a second Takovo. The symbolism of the act rested on the well-known flexible geography pattern which national ideology borrowed from the Christian heritage. The symbolism of the ritual is founded on the cosmological symbolography of the royal garden as the monarchic, state and national earthly paradise and golden age revival with the sacred tree at its center. Viewed from a broader European perspective, it is rooted in the old concept of royal gardens as a horticultural expression of a utopian metaphor for the ideal monarchy, its grandeur, power and prestige, but for achieved happiness as well. The entire undertaking, however, soon sank in oblivion. Three years later, after the assassination of King Alexander and Queen Draga (Obrenović), the Karađorđević dynasty moved into the royal palace. The royal park became accommodated to the needs of a new representative culture. After the Second World War, the park became a public space and was renamed 'Pioneers Park'. The old oak tree is still in its center, but the fact that it has grown from an acorn of the Takovo bush, the one-time sacred national and dynastic tree has been completely obliterated in shared public memory.

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