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Ekonomika
2008, vol. 54, br. 3-4, str. 107-116
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
objavljeno: 29/07/2008
Sistem socijalnog osiguranja i javna potrošnja
Niška poslovna škola, Niš

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
Public consumption is state consumption, and no matter if the costs are manufacturing or non manufacturing, they satisfy the needs of a certain number and kind of subjects. Wider comprehension of general consumption starts with different roles of economic and non-economic activities. Namely, the first ones just take part in making social product, while the later are involved in its distribution. However, it is necessary for a state to have certain financial institutions implemented in its financial system in order to make expenses. Certainly, one of the most significant and important financial institutions is the budget. In most of the countries, determinants have resulted in increasing public consumption funds and its bigger share in national income, during last few decades. Decreasing public expenses and deficit as a participation in GDP are the main challenges of fiscal policy in modern states. As for Serbia, the expenses are not flexible enough, because more than 80% of Serbian budget expenses are fixed by different acts (retirements, social welfare, subventions etc.) Decreasing public consumption share in GDP will make growth of private investments and consumption possible. In future, public consumption level should be adjusted to the possibilities of financing the deficit. The expenses dedicated to social security of the citizens are among the most important expenses of balance in modem states. There are two kinds of social security of the citizens in modern states. The first is a segment of contributory insurance which means retirement and disability insurance, health and unemployment insurance. The second is a number of different kinds of social security of all citizens, who are not able to provide adequate existence for themselves. Contributory insurance today represents the most significant mode of social security, it is funded by the means of contributions, it is regular and compulsory, but there may be different forms of optional and compulsory complementary insurance, as well. About 45% of the total public consumption is spent on compulsory insurance organizations (retirement and disability plan, contributory insurance system and unemployment exchange). Contributory insurance system can be financed by on-going adjustment of contributions to expenses, as well as accumulation of capital. The pay-as-you-go system works successfully if citizens of a country are relatively young, and national income is increasing in long terms, so pensions are financed by the contributions the employed pay for. Problems arise when the rate between the number of pensioners and those who pay for contributions increases, so called coefficient of dependence. The capital accumulation system is superior comparing to the pay-as-you-go system. The employed become aware that paying for the contributions they spare for future, i.e. that their contributions will not be used for retirement payment to current pensioners. The main problem in this system is how to invest the collected funds successfully, as in a lot of countries in transition.

Reference

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