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Psihološka istraživanja
2011, vol. 14, br. 1, str. 5-23
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
objavljeno: 08/11/2011
doi: 10.5937/PsIstra1101005P
Sličnosti i razlike u konceptualizovanju kritičkog mišljenja
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Filozofski fakultet, Institut za psihologiju

e-adresa: pesicjelena011@gmail.com

Projekat

Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije (MPNTR - 179018)

Sažetak

U radu se istražuju osnovne sličnosti i razlike u konceptualizovanju kritičkog mišljenja. Okosnicu analize čine shvatanja najuticajnijih teoretičara u ovoj oblasti: Enisa, Mekpeka, Sigela, Pola i Lipmana. U fokusu razmatranja su dva osnovna pitanja: koje odlike treba da ima mišljenje da bi bilo okarakterisano kao kritičko i šta su njegovi konstitutivni elementi. Priroda prepoznatih razlika otvorila je i dilemu u vezi s tim da li je kritičko mišljenje opšta ili predmetno specifična sposobnost, kao i pitanje uloge nekognitivnih dispozicija za kritičko mišljenje. Razmatran je i odnos dominantnog pristupa utemeljenog u neformalnoj logici i epistemoloških koncepcija, u kojima je razrađena refleksivna i dijalektičko-dijaloška dimenzija kritičkog mišljenja. Preovlađujuće pragmatično shvatanje cilja kritičkog mišljenja kontrastirano je pokušaju manjeg broja autora da njegovu svrhu i smisao zasnuju na konceptu emancipatorne racionalnosti. Rezultati analize sugerišu da, iako ne postoji konzistentan teorijski okvir konceptualizacije kritičkog mišljenja, razmatrana shvatanja ipak dele neke bazične principe, pre svega u određenju njegovih distinktivnih karakteristika. U pogledu shvatanja prirode standarda i konstitutivnih elemenata kritičkog mišljenja, postoje principijelne i duboke razlike koje se mogu dovesti u vezu sa složenom, mnogostranom i multidiskurzivnom prirodom samog pojma.

Ključne reči

kritičko mišljenje; distinktivne odlike kritičkog mišljenja; konstituenti kritičkog mišljenja

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