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2011, vol. 59, iss. 2, pp. 94-110
Selection of the signal synchronization method in software GPS receivers
aUniversity of Defence, Military Academy, Belgrade
bUniversity of Belgrade, 'Mihajlo Pupin' Institute
cUniversity of Belgrade, Faculty of Electrical Engineering

emailsokosv@yahoo.com
Keywords: GPS; software receiver; signal tracking; bit synchronization; DLL; TDL; PLL
Abstract
Introduction This paper presents a critical analysis of the signal processing flow carried out in a software GPS receiver and a critical comparison of different architectures for signal processing within the GPS receiver. A model of software receivers is shown. Based on the displayed model, a receiver has been realized in the MATLAB software package, in which the simulations of signal processing were carried out. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of the synchronization of signals in the receiver, and to propose a solution acceptable for possible implementation. The signal processing flow was observed from the input circuit to the extraction of the bits of the navigation message. The entire signal processing was performed on the L1 signal and the data collected by the input circuit SE4110. A radio signal from the satellite was accepted with the input circuit, filtered and translated into a digital form. The input circuit ends with the hardware of the receiver. A digital signal from the input circuit is brought into the PC Pentium 4 (AMD 3000 +) where the receiver is realized in Matlab. Model of software GPS receiver The first level of processing is signal acquisition. Signal acquisition was realized using the cyclic convolution. The acquisition process was carried out by measuring signals from satellites, and these parameters are passed to the next level of processing. The next level was done by monitoring the synchronization signal and extracting the navigation message bits. On the basis of the detection of the navigation message the receiver calculates the position of a satellite and then, based on the position of the satellite, its own position. Tracking of GPS signal synchronization In order to select the most acceptable method of signal synchronization in the receiver, different methods of signal synchronization are compared. The early-late-DLL (Delay Lock Loop), TDL (Tau Dither Loop) and Costas's PLL (Phase Lock Loop) models of loop tracking of signal synchronization are presented. The analysis is performed by processing the signals from the same satellite and under the same conditions of the initial signal synchronization. The multiple signal processing showed the advantages and disadvantages of the particular methods and the most acceptable solution proved to be the implementation of the DLL tracking loop phase synchronization and the code tracking loop PLL carrier frequency synchronization. The influence of the parameters of the loop itself is shown as well. After the extraction of navigation bits, all bit extracts do not come with an equal phase. This may lead to a wrong decision in rejecting the Decider and bits. Therefore, the paper proposes an additional synchronization of the extracted bits selected by the navigation messages NDA (Non-Data-Aided) algorithm in order to perform their correct detection and to position the receiver much faster. Comparison of methods of signal synchronization Based on the analysis of the methods, the simulation results are compared. The results showed that the TDL loop is not resistant to dynamic disturbances of signals, since the synchronization tracking breaks up. In addition, this loop shows susceptibility to the noise from free space. These are sufficient reasons to propose the implementation of the DLL signal tracking loop as an acceptable solution. In addition to the proposal of the tracking loop, tracking loop coefficient values are determined. Conclusion The performed analysis showed that the TDL loop is not resistant to noise and dynamic disorders of the input signal. Therefore, an appropriate solution for the implementation is the DLL loop with six correlates. The DLL tracking loop coefficients are determined as a compromise solution and they are B = 2Hz and γ = 0.7. Also, the coefficients of the PLL tracking loop of frequency synchronization are B = 20Hz and γ = 0.7. The application of the NDA algorithm results in an additional synchronization of the navigation bit message, thus making the receiver operate faster and more precisely.
References
Dukić, M. (2008) Principi telekomunikacija. Beograd: Akademska misao
Heinrich, M., Moeneclaey, M. (1998) Synchronization, channel estimation, and signal processing. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Kaplan, E.D. (1996) Understanding GPS : principles and applications. Norwood: Artech House
Parkinson, B.W., Spilker, J.J. (1996) Global positioning system: Theory and applications. Washington: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautic, Vol1
Radojević, S.M., Ćurčić, J.T. (2009) Tačnost i modernizacija globalnog pozicionog sistema. Vojnotehnički glasnik, vol. 57, br. 4, str. 108-131
Render, P., Borre, K. (2006) Software: Defined GPS and Galileo receiver. Birkhauser
Simon, M.K., Omura, J.K., Scholty, R.A., Levitt, B.K. (1994) Spread spectrum communications handbook. McGraw-Hill
 

About

article language: Serbian
document type: Professional Paper
DOI: 10.5937/vojtehg1102094S
published in SCIndeks: 27/07/2011
peer review method: double-blind

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