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Nasleđe
2006, br. 7, str. 9-36
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: članak

Kompleks Sahat kapije
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Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
Sahat-kapija (Clock-Gate) represents the main entrance into the Upper town central fortified area of the Belgrade fortification. It is very compound complex, created in the course of several centuries, which mainly remained well preserved. It is consisted of two consecutively built gates, i.e. of two covered gateways through rampart, with suitable lateral rooms, then the famous Sahat-kula (Clock-Tower), as well as the remains of partly destroyed medieval double Upper town’s rampart. On this complex, conservational works were performed more than once, and it was systematically researched in 1987 and 2004. Due to complexity of the issues, the results achieved during these researches are exposed in chronological order. Older cultural horizons which antecede fortification building in this area, the thickness of which is from 3,5 to 4,5 m, buried construction parts included, have an unequal preservation degree. They comprise stratigraphic range from sterile soil lay to the terrain level from the beginning of the 15th century, i.e. from the period when the Mediaeval rampart was built. The prehistoric layers from the period of final neolith and eneolith were discovered as the oldest ones. Above them, the ancient horizon from the 3-4th century, which corresponds to the period of existence of Roman castrum in this area, was formed. This horizon is closed with stucco floor board, above which was observed the layer with the 6th century material. Early Medieval horizon is denoted by the tomb findings without supplements, which pertain to the necropolis where burials stopped before the end of the 9th century. The necropolis area was negated in the 10th century by a dry-stone construction, which had a square pedestal and circular top part. Due to fragmentary preservation, its shape could only be assumed, while its function remains only in the domain of hypothesis. In stratigraphic sense, this construction is closed with 11-12th century layers. On explored area of Sahat-kapija (Clock-Gate), the parts of dual rampart system of the Upper Town, built during the first decade of the 15th century, represent the oldest remains of the built fortifications. In the structure of the later south-east rampart, the remains of the main older medieval inner rampart were discovered, as well as the remains of the outward lower rampart with inclined stone escarp. In its structure, even reinforcement, built after 1683 in the area between the inner and outward rampart, was preserved. Turkish defeat by Vienna denoted the beginning of the new period in the history of Belgrade Fortification, marked with war destructions and profound reconstructions of fortifications. Almost all the phases of these works, which lasted, with interruptions, up to last decades of the 18th century, are visible in preserved architectural inheritance in the Sahat-kapija (Clock-Gate) complex. During the last decade of the 17th century, a new south-east rampart of the Upper Town was built according to the standards of bastion artillery fortifications, which consisted of outward curtain with the front built on a slope and vertical revetment towards the inside of the fortification. The space is filled with earth embankment in the structure of which remained older fortifications, pulled down up to the platform surface of the new rampart. Within the reconstructed rampart, the new main entrance into the Upper town was built - the present Sahat-kapija (Clock-Gate). The gate was built in the form of arched gateway with ornamentally arranged portal. During its construction, the wall mass of medieval inner and outward rampart was pushed out, later Turkish construction included. Even four lateral sentry rooms were envisioned beside the getaway of the gate, two on each side, but they remained unbuilt. In the next phase, during the Austrian rule 1717-1739, within great works on reconstruction of Belgrade fortification a new south-east bastion front was built. In the axis of this new outward fortress front, a new gate in south-east rampart was built as well, beside older Sahat-kapija (Clock-Gate), which on that occasion, was probably walled up. The new gate was built in the spirit of baroque architecture in the form of arched getaway through the rampart, with two lateral rooms. In its structure, above the arch, the spacious building for accommodation of fortress sentry, the remains of which were discovered during the archaeological explorations, was built on the upper platform of the rampart. This building’s baroque facade with gate portal made a unique complex, of which nowadays testify only few discovered fragments of stone plastic. After surrender of Belgrade to Turks in 1740, and destruction of Austrian fortifications, the new gate was walled up and transformed into the rampart casemate, while previous function was returned to the older Sahat-kapija (Clock-Gate). In mid 18th century the high Sahat-kula (Clock-Tower) was built above this gate, and by its construction the whole complex was degraded in fortification sense. On the basis of the results of exploration works, designs for rehabilitation and revitalization of this significant complex were made. Some of these designs are already realized, while the final conservational works are about to start.

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