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Nasleđe
2004, br. 5, str. 35-52
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan

Leopoldova kapija beogradske tvrđave sa susednim bastionima
Afilijacija nije data

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
Leopold's gate is situated in the Eastern fortress front of the bulwark fortifications, built from the late 17th to the sixth decade of the 18th century; it later underwent several minor renovations (fig 1). During the research and analysis of the historic materials, particularly old plans several stages in the building of this gate and the surrounding bulwark became evident (fig 2-3). A counter-escarp in front of the entry to the Upper Citadel was built during the first stage; it was turned into a bulwark during the first Austrian occupation 1688-1690, and was named after count Von Starenberg, one of the commanders of the Fortress. After the Turkish re-occupation, the building of new fortifications was continued between 1693 and 1696, under the conduct of Andrea Cornaro. During that period, a vaulted gate was built into the existing bulwark and its basic corpus, except for the exterior portal, has been preserved to the present day (fig 5-6). In the course of the second Austrian occupation 1717-1739, the gate was extended. A new, more representative portal was built instead of the existing one. It was molded in the spirit of the Baroque. The monogram LP (Leopoldus Primus) placed on it indicates that it was dedicated to the Austrian emperor Leopold I; during his reign Belgrade was freed from the Turks for the first time (fig 7). After the renewed Turkish occupation of Belgrade in 1740 Leopold's gate was preserved, although other Austrian fortifications were mostly destroyed. During the works on the fortification in the following two decades the faces and the curtain wall of the bulwark were raised for over two meters and above them built screens for the canons were placed. A wall with loopholes was built above the gate and part of the bulwark in the last stage, dated in the fourth decade of the nineteenth century at the latest (fig 3c, fig 9); this belonged to the preparations of the Turkish garrison for defense against possible Serbian attack. After it had been delivered to the Serbian army in 1867, the Belgrade fortress lost its previous military significance. Conservator works don Leopold's gate after the First World War, then in 1960 and 2001. On the bulwark north of the gate a restaurant with garden terraces was built in 1936. This restaurant - "Kalemegdanska terasa" - was thoroughly renovated and extended in 1998-1999.

Reference

Popović, M. (1982) Beogradska tvrđava. Beograd: Arheološki institut SANU, knj. 18, 48-56
Popović, M. (2001) Kralj kapija Beogradske tvrđave. Nasleđe, br. 3, str. 9-37
Popović, M. (1970) Utvrđene srednjovekovne kapije na Severoistočnom bedemu Beogradskog grada. Saopštenja Zavoda za zaštitu spomenika kulture grada Beograda, br. 9, 21
Popović, M. (1983) Projekti Nikole Doksata de Moreza za rekonstrukciju beogradskih utvrđenja 1723-1725. godine. Godišnjak grada Beograda / GMGB, XXX, 50-51, sl. 6
Uzelac, Z. (1988) Balthasar Neuman i barokni Beograd - jedna reinterpretacija Sangallovog bunara iz Orvieta. Čovjek i prostor, Zagreb, 7-8, str. 31-34
Vasić, P. (1970) Barok u Beogradu 1717-1739. u: Oslobođenje gradova u Srbiji od Turaka 1862-1867, naučni skup, Beograd, 22. do 24. maja 1967, zbornik radova, Beograd: Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti / SANU, 618-619