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Nasleđe
2011, br. 12, str. 33-56
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan

Estetiziranje, teatralizacija i nacionalizacija građanstva - proslava Beogradskog pevačkog društva 1903
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Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
The anniversary celebration of the Belgrade Singing Society in 1903 was one of the biggest public events ever held in 19th-century Belgrade. It was organized in celebration of the Society's 50th anniversary and was meant to assert the importance it enjoyed in society. Founded as a cultural association, the Society played a significant role in promoting national music across Serbia during the 1800s. The purpose underlying the fostering of an appreciation of national music was to homogenize the nation. Acting as a patriotic association, the Society took part in creating the cultural climate in Serbia, but also in other areas populated by ethnic Serbs. Under the high patronage of the ruling house of Obrenović, the Society enjoyed elite status within the dynastic and national cultural ideology. The celebration was held in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, which, being the state's official and symbolic center, was a synonym for the public in the nineteenth century. The public performativity of the pageant organized by the Society was to highlight the strength of the cultural elite of Belgrade and Serbia. The ideators of the celebration were the most eminent artists and theoreticians of the period, such as Mihailo Valtrović, Branislav Nušić, Stevan Mokranjac. The complex symbolic structure of the elaborate festivity performed in the streets of Belgrade in May relied on an idealized past to provide a basis for a contemporary notion of nation and art. The celebratory historical procession visually evoked the contemporary perception of a golden medieval past. The inventing of tradition was achieved through artistic means. Medieval costumes, heralds, carriages... were put into play using various media. As if the great oils of historical painting were brought to life in the streets of Belgrade. The narrativity of the pageant was created by means of stage props. Its theatrical flavor relied on the well-known European practice modified to suit the local setting. Historical pageants were a matter of fashion and prestige through which the rising civil elites put forth their political and status demands. Self-represented as pillars of progress, science and modernity, they defined themselves as an unavoidable guarantor of the stability and progress of state and nation. The narrative structure of the celebratory historical pageant was to assert the nation's modernity and historical continuity. It was bolstered by living statues mounted on a float in the middle of the procession. The allegorical personification of Serbia and the symbolical figure of the Minstrel, as recognizable identity emblems of the nation, were communication agents serving the purpose of the nation's propagandistic glorification. By displaying the clear emblems, the civil elites created and established an atmosphere of national unity cutting across class and other lines. The integrative power of the emblems was to help constitute the homogeneous body of the nation. An aestheticization of all aspects of life, political included, was obvious during the celebration of the Belgrade Singing Society. Artistic symbols created a political climate, visually influencing the reshaping of the social climate. Visible absence of dynastic elements during the celebration reflected the political situation. The regime of King Alexander Obrenović was counting its last days. Lack of political liberties coupled with the absence of a clear political will to homogenize the nation led to the end of the reign of the last Obrenović. Only two days after the celebration, on 29 May 1903, the royal couple was assassinated and a new dynasty headed by Peter Karađorđević acceded to the throne. Thus the anniversary celebration of the Belgrade Singing Society was a clear manifestation of civil liberties expressed through a big public celebration. On a symbolic level, the big civil spectacle transformed Belgrade itself. The city began to pulsate and, transformed by the great national rally led by the civil elite, turned into an outdoor theatre.

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