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Zdravstvena zaštita
2012, vol. 41, iss. 4, pp. 61-65
article language: Serbian
document type: Professional Paper

Oxidative stress in acute and chronic physical exercise athletes
Visoka medicinska škola strukovnih studija 'Milutin Milanković', Beograd

Abstract

Background. Oxidative stress means the state of increased free radical production where their harmful effects overwhelm the antioxidant capacity of an organism and lead to a number of pathological disorders. Oxidative stress is basically a number of diseases: atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cataract surgery, the heart attacks, cancer, the aging process. Factors in the environment, toxic chemicals, ionizing radiation, excess heavy metals, cigarette smoking, physical activity can increase the production of free radicals. The organism has developed antioxidative protection that includes protection of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). This protection includes a number of antioxidant compounds that living organisms take from the environment. In a paper published in Journal of Sports Medicine Fitness Fis, Dec. 2011., studied the effect of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes before and after the match with 22 players of American football. The results showed that a match caused excessive production of free radicals (malondialdehyde and nitric oxide), and the parameters of antioxidant defense, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), have remained unchanged. It was concluded that the antioxidant protection to be effective it is necessary that the physical load takes a long time and that the higher intensity. In a study published in Int J. Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, Aug. 2010., followed by the chronic effects of exercise in gymnastics - and adolescents in the control group of preadolescent girls that do not play sports. Over 3 years were observed in serum concentrations of antioxidant enzymes,GPx and SOD and trace elements (selenium, zinc, copper). The concentrations of GPx and trace elements were significantly higher in gymnasts than in controls, whereas SOD concentrations were significantly lower in gymnasts than in controls. When gymnasts were altered profile of antioxidant enzymes compared to their physically inactive peers. In athletes with longer periods of exercise developed more effective antioxidant protection. Discussion. Athletes, especially elite athletes, are subjected to enormous stress both during training and especially during the contest. Acute physical exertion can lead to oxidative tissue damage that could be avoided by using antioxidant professional resources. In chronic physical exercise leads to increased oxidative stress markers but important changes, and antioxidant protection that is becoming more efficient. Conclusion. Harmful effects of free radicals in acute physical exercise may be decrease antioxidant substances. Planned and professionally managed chronic physical activity leads to improved antioxidant protection of organism.

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References

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