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Pravo i privreda
2010, vol. 47, iss. 7-9, pp. 28-43
article language: Serbian
document type: unclassified
published on: 05/04/2011
Acquisition of ownership rights over movable property on the basis of legal transaction
Educons University, Faculty of European Legal and Political Studies, Novi Sad

Abstract

One acquires ownership rights in a derivative mode if an acquirer (accipiens) derives his ownership rights from the title of the transferor (tradens) in the same or smaller scope, based on a legal transaction. Tradens cannot transfer greater rights to the accipiens than he himself has (Nemo plus iuris ad alium transferre potest quam ipse habet). Derivative mode of acquisition of rights exists if, as a rule, the following basic conditions are fulfilled: 1) fitness of objects to be objects of ownership rights and acquisition, and the ability of an accipiens to acquire ownership rights over that object; 2) existence of a valid legal transaction directed towards the transfer of title from tradens to accipiens (iustus titulus); and 3) valid mode of acquisition (modus acquirendi) with property law effect (transfers title from tradens to accipiens). Acquisition mode over a sold movable object depends on its nature: 1) smaller objects, as a rule, change hands (traditio vera), 2) instead of single, larger items, one delivers documents or devices that enable its possession (traditio symbolica), or 3) the agreement itself transfers property rights, and a delivery is simulated. An agreement or any other legal transaction, in our law, as a rule, does not transfer ownership rights from a tradens to an accipiens in its own right - it does not have a property law, but a law of obligations effect. Therefore, until the delivery of the object to the accipiens, the tradens keeps its title of ownership over an item that is an object of a legal transaction. When more persons have made special legal transactions in order to obtain ownership rights over the same object that is individually determined, the ownership right is obtained by a person the object was first delivered to, if he is conscientious, and also fulfills all other conditions for obtaining property.

Keywords

derivative acquisition; acquisition of ownership rights; movable property; legal basis; modus acquirendi

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