Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:[2]
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:19
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:14
article: 3 from 23  
Back back to result list
Psihološka istraživanja
2017, vol. 20, iss. 2, pp. 239-254
article language: English
document type: Original Scientific Paper
published on: 12/01/2018
doi: 10.5937/PsIstra1702239L
Creative Commons License 4.0
Predictors of students' self-esteem: The importance of body self-perception and exercise
aUniversity of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy, Institute of Psychology
bUniversity of Belgrade, Faculty of Sports and Physical Education



Identification, measurement and development of the cognitive and emotional competences important for a Europe-oriented society (MESTD - 179018)
Effects of the Applied Physical Activity to Locomotor, Metabolic, Psycho-Social and Educational Status of the Population of the Republic of Serbia (MESTD - 47015)


The goal of this study was to explore the predictive validity of physical self-efficacy, social physique anxiety, and physical activity in the self-esteem of students, as well as to investigate potential gender differences. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES), Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and a short questionnaire about physical activity were administered to a sample of 232 university students. The overall results show that students are moderately physically active (on the average, 2.75 times per week), have moderately high selfesteem and physical self-efficacy and lower social physique anxiety. No gender differences were detected in self-esteem. In other variables, gender differences are significant and mostly in favour of males. The analyses showed that self-esteem correlated positively with physical self-efficacy and physical activity, and negatively with social physique anxiety. The regression analyses indicated that physical selfefficacy, social physique anxiety and female gender were significant predictors of self-esteem. Physical activity was not a significant predictor of self-esteem. Future studies should investigate the relations of body self-perceptions, physical exercise, and domain-specific self-esteem.


self-esteem; physical self-efficacy; social physique anxiety; physical activity; university students


Atalay, A.A., Gençöz, T. (2008) Critical Factors of Social Physique Anxiety: Exercising and Body Image Satisfaction. Behaviour Change, 25(03): 178-188
Bandura, A. (1997) Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company
Baumeister, R.F., Campbell, J.D., Krueger, J.I., Vohs, K.D. (2003) Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1): 1-44
Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P.C.L., Davies, F. (2007) The impact of hope, self-esteem, and attributional style on adolescents' school grades and emotional well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(6): 1161-1178
Crawford, S., Eklund, R.C. (1994) Social Physique Anxiety , Reasons for Exercise, and Attitudes toward Exercise Settings. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(1): 70-82
Dishman, R.K., Hales, D.P., Pfeiffer, K.A., Felton, G.A., Saunders, R., Ward, D.S., Dowda, M., Pate, R.R. (2006) Physical self-concept and self-esteem mediate cross-sectional relations of physical activity and sport participation with depression symptoms among adolescent girls. Health Psychology, 25(3): 396-407
Ekeland, E. (2005) Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials * Commentary. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(11): 792-798
Focht, B.C., Hausenblas, H.A. (2006) Exercising in Public and Private Environments: Effects on Feeling States in Women with Social Physique Anxiety. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 11(3-4): 147-165
Fox, K.R. (2002) Self-perceptions and sport behaviour. in: Horn T.S. [ed.] Advances in sport psychology, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2nd ed. pp. 83-99
Fox, K.R. (2000) Self-esteem, self-perceptions and exercise. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31(2): 228-240
Fox, K.R. (1999) The influence of physical activity on mental well-being. Public Health Nutrition, 2(3a):
Fox, R.K. (2002) The effect on exercise on self-perceptions and self-esteem. in: Biddle S.J.H., Fox K.R.Boutcher S.H. [ed.] Physical activity and psychological well-being, London: Routledge, pp. 88-117
Frederick, C.M., Morrison, C.S. (1996) Social Physique Anxiety: Personality Constructs, Motivations, Exercise Attitudes, and Behaviors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82(3): 963-972
Furnham, A., Badmin, N., Sneade, I. (2002) Body Image Dissatisfaction: Gender Differences in Eating Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Reasons for Exercise. Journal of Psychology, 136(6): 581-596
Gentile, B., Grabe, S., Dolan-Pascoe, B., Twenge, J.M., Wells, B.E., Maitino, A. (2009) Gender differences in domain-specific self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Review of General Psychology, 13(1): 34-45
Ginis, K.A. M., Lindwall, M., Prapavessis, H. (2012) Who Cares What Other People Think? Self-Presentation in Exercise and Sport. in: Tenenbaum, Gershon; Eklund, Robert C. [ed.] Handbook of Sport Psychology, Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, str. 136-157
Gomes, R., Gonçalves, S., Costa, J. (2015) Exercise, eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being: a study with Portuguese adolescents. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 47(1): 66-74
Hart, E.A., Leary, M.R., Rejeski, W. J. (1989) Tie Measurement of Social Physique Anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1): 94-104
Janić, S.R., Jurak, G., Milanović, I., Lazarević, D., Kovač, M., Novak, D. (2014) Physical Self-Concept of Adolescents in Western Balkan Countries: A Pilot Study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119(2): 629-649
Kling, K.C., Hyde, J.S., Showers, C.J., Buswell, B.N. (1999) Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(4): 470-500
Klomsten, A.T., Skaalvik, E.M., Espnes, G.A. (2004) Physical Self-Concept and Sports: Do Gender Differences Still Exist?. Sex Roles, 50(1/2): 119-127
Kowalski, N.P., Crocker, P.R. E., Kowalski, K.C. (2001) Physical Self and Physical Activity Relationships in College Women: Does Social Physique Anxiety Moderate Effects?. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(1): 55-62
Landers, D.M., Arent, S.M. (2007) Physical activity and mental health. in: Tenenbaum G., Eklund R.C. [ed.] Handbook of sport psychology, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 469-491
Lazarević, D., Orlić, A., Lazarević, Lj.B. (2014) Physical self-efficacy and social physique anxiety as predictors of self-esteem of the students' involved in sport. in: International Scientific Conference Effects of Physical Activity Application to Anthropological Status with Children, Youth and Adults, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education,, pp. 155
Lazarević, D., Lazarević, Lj.B., Radisavljević, J.S. (2016) Psychological correlates of female student's engagement in sport and exercise. in: Kasum G., Mudrić M. [ed.] International Scientific Conference Effects of Physical Activity Application to Anthropological Status with Children, Youth and Adults, Belgrade, December 11-12th 2015, Belgrade: Faculty of Sport and, pp. 168-173
Leary, M.R. (1992) Self-Presentational Processes in Exercise and Sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14(4): 339-351
Lindwall, M., Lindgren, E. (2005) The effects of a 6-month exercise intervention programme on physical self-perceptions and social physique anxiety in non-physically active adolescent Swedish girls. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6(6): 643-658
Maïano, C., Morin, A.J. S., Eklund, R.C., Monthuy-Blanc, J., Garbarino, J., Stephan, Y. (2010) Construct Validity of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale in a French Adolescent Sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(1): 53-62
Martin, M.Y. (2006) Effects of resistance and aerobic exercise on physical self-efficacy and social physique anxiety in female college students. Electronic Theses & Dissertations, paper 88. Retrieved on June 10, 2014, from
Mcauley, E., Blissmer, B. (2000) Self-efficacy determinants and consequences of physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 28(2): 85-88
Mcauley, E., Burman, G. (1993) The Social Physique Anxiety Scale. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 25(9): 1049???1053
McAuley, E., Gill, D. (1983) Reliability and Validity of the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale in a Competitive Sport Setting. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5(4): 410-418
Motl, R.W., Conroy, D.E. (2001) The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: Cross Validation, Factorial Invariance, and Latent Mean Structure. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 5(2): 81-95
Mülazimoğlu-Balli, Ö., Koca, C., Aşçi, F. (2010) An Examination of Social Physique Anxiety with Regard to Sex and Level of Sport Involvement. Journal of Human Kinetics, 26, 115-122
Netz, Y. (2012) Physical Activity and Three Dimensions of Psychological Functioning in Advanced Age: Cognition, Affect, and Self-Perception. in: Tenenbaum, Gershon; Eklund, Robert C. [ed.] Handbook of Sport Psychology, Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, str. 492-508
Polce-Lynch, M., Myers, B.J., Kilmartin, C.T., Forssmann-Falck, R., Kliewer, W. (1998) Gender and age patterns in emotional expression, body image, and selfesteem: A qualitative analysis. Sex Roles, 38(11/12): 1025-1048
Robins, R.W., Trzesniewski, K.H., Tracy, J.L., Gosling, S.D., Potter, J. (2002) Global self-esteem across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 17(3): 423-434
Rosenberg, M. (1965) Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Rothberger, S.M. (2014) An examination of social physique anxiety among college students: A mixed methodological approach. Electronic Theses & Dissertations, paper 1050. Retrieved on June, 10, 2014, from
Ryckman, M., Robbins, B., Thorton, G., Cantrell, P. (1982) Development and validation physical self-efficacy scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 42, br. 5. str. 891-891
Schlenker, B.R., Leary, M.R. (1982) Social anxiety and self-presentation: A conceptualization and model. Psychol Bull, 92(3): 641-69
Scott, L.A., Burke, K.L., Joyner, A. B., Brand, J.S. (2004) Examining the Stability of the 7-Item Social Physique Anxiety Scale Using a Test-Retest Method. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 8(2): 57-62
Sicilia, A., Sáenz-Alvarez, P., González-Cutre, D., Ferriz, R. (2014) Exercise Motivation and Social Physique Anxiety In Adolescents. Psychologica Belgica, 54(1): 111-129
Sonstroem, R.J., Morgan, W.P. (1989) Exercise and self-esteem. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 21(3): 329-337
Trost, S.G., Pate, R.R., Sallis, J.F., Freedson, P.S., Taylor, W.C., Dowda, M., Sirard, J. (2002) Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(2): 350-355
Wade, T., Cooper, M. (1999) Sex differences in the links between attractiveness, self-esteem and the body. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(6): 1047-1056
Weinberg, R.S., Gould, D. (2007) Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Yousefi, B., Hassani, Z., Shokri, O. (2009) Reliability and factor validity of the 7-item social physique anxiety scale (SPAS-7) among university students in Iran. World Journal of Sport Sciences, 2(3): 201-204