Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:12
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:8
article: 9 from 23  
Back back to result list
Psihijatrija danas
2015, vol. 47, iss. 1, pp. 29-41
article language: English
document type: Research Paper
published on: 05/04/2016
Body dissatisfaction, trait anxiety and self-esteem in young men
aInstitute of Behavioural Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
bDepartment of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium



Background and purpose: Body image dissatisfaction has recently been described as 'normative' for both men and women. Despite intense theoretical interest in a multidimensional concept of male body image, comprehensive models have rarely been assessed empirically. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between body image and self-esteem among men in a multivariate model. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional questionnaire study were 239 male university students (mean age: 20.3 years, SD=2.78 years, range: 18-39 years). Measures: self-reported anthropometric data, weightlifting activity, importance of appearance, perceived weight status, satisfaction with body height, Body Shape Questionnaire - Short form, Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: Structural equation modeling showed that after controlling for age, BMI, weightlifting activity, the importance of appearance, and trait anxiety, only muscle dissatisfaction predicted lower self-esteem (β=-0.11, p=0.033). Neither height dissatisfaction nor weight dissatisfaction showed significant association with selfesteem. Muscle dissatisfaction partially mediated the relationship between trait anxiety and self-esteem (β=-0.04, p=0.049, R2=0.05). The model explained 50.4% of the variance in selfesteem. Conclusions: The results emphasize that trait anxiety might be a background variable in the relationship between males' body dissatisfaction and self-esteem, which should be considered in future studies and in the course of therapy.



Babusa, B., Túry, F. (2011) The nosological classification and assessment of muscle dysmorphia. Psychiatr Hung, 26: 158-66 , [Hungarian]
Benetti, C., Kambouropoulos, N. (2006) Affect-regulated indirect effects of trait anxiety and trait resilience on self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(2): 341-352
Bergeron, D., Tylka, T.L. (2007) Support for the uniqueness of body dissatisfaction from drive for muscularity among men. Body Image, 4(3): 288-295
Blashill, A.J. (2010) Elements of male body image: Prediction of depression, eating pathology and social sensitivity among gay men. Body Image, 7(4): 310-316
Brown, T. (2006) Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press
Chandler, C.G., Derryberry, W., Grieve, F.G., Pegg, P.O. (2009) Are Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Related to Muscle Dysmorphia?. International Journal of Men's Health, 8(2): 143-154
Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale-London, itd: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2nd ed
Czeglédi, E., Csizmadia, P., Urbán, R. (2011) Body dissatisfaction and its risk factors: Hungarian adaptation of Body Shape Questionnaire Short Form. Psychiatr Hung, 26:241-9. [Hungarian]
Dowson, J., Henderson, L. (2001) The validity of a short version of the Body Shape Questionnaire. Psychiatry Research, 102(3): 263-271
Furnham, A., Badmin, N., Sneade, I. (2002) Body Image Dissatisfaction: Gender Differences in Eating Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Reasons for Exercise. Journal of Psychology, 136(6): 581-596
Hildebrandt, T., Langenbucher, J., Schlundt, D.G. (2004) Muscularity concerns among men: development of attitudinal and perceptual measures. Body Image, 1(2): 169-181
Manjrekar, E., Berenbaum, H. (2012) Exploring the utility of emotional awareness and negative affect in predicting body satisfaction and body distortion. Body Image, 9(4): 495-502
Mayville, S.B., Williamson, D.A., White, M.A., Netemeyer, R.G., Drab, D.L. (2002) Development of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale. Assessment, 9(4): 351-360
Miller, E., Halberstadt, J. (2005) Media consumption, body image, and thin ideals in New Zealand men and women. New Zeal J Psychol, 34: 189-95
Muthén, L.K., Muthén, B.O. (1998-2007) Mplus user's guide. Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén, 5th ed
Paksi, B., Felvinczi, K., Schmidt, A. (2004) Prevention/health promotion activity in public education. Budapest: Ministry of Education, Research report, [Hungarian]
Pope, H.G., Gruber, A.J., Mangweth, B., Bureau, B., de Col, C., Jouvent, R., Hudson, J.I. (2000) Body Image Perception Among Men in Three Countries. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(8): 1297-1301
Rosenberg, M. (1965) Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Sipos, K., Sipos, M., Spielberger, C.D. (1988) Hungarian version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). in: Mérei F., Szakács F. [ed.] Psychodiagnostic vademecum I: Explorational and biographical methods, symptom evaluation scales and questionnaires, Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó, 2, p.123-36. [Hungarian]
Tiggemann, M., Martins, Y., Churchett, L. (2008) Beyond Muscles. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(8): 1163-1172
Tiggemann, M., Martins, Y., Kirkbride, A. (2007) Oh to be lean and muscular: Body image ideals in gay and heterosexual men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(1): 15-24