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Psihologija
2009, vol. 42, br. 3, str. 273-288
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan
doi:10.2298/PSI0903273B
Ekonomski i kulturalni faktori školskog postignuća romske dece
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Filozofski fakultet, Odsek za psihologiju

e-adresa: biromik@gmail.com

Projekat

Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149008: Psychological characteristics of transitional society

Sažetak

Osnovni cilj ovog istraživanja je bio da se ispita uticaj sredinskih činilaca na školsko postignuće romske i ne-romske dece u prvom razredu. U istraživanju je učestvovalo 149 dece prosečne starosti 81 mesec. Deca su podeljena u tri grupe: prvu grupu sačinjavala su romska deca (52), dok su ne-romska deca podeljena u dve grupe u odnosu na ekonomski status - u grupi sa ispodprosečnim statusom (sličnim romskoj deci) bilo je 49 dece, a u grupi sa prosečnim ekonomskim statusom 48 dece. Procena uspešnosti u školi procenjena je od strane nastavnika putem skale procene, intelektualne sposobnosti dece su procenjivane Testom zrelosti za školu, a podaci o socioekonomskom statusu i edukativnoj klimi su dobijeni od roditelja, primenom standardizovanog intervjua. Romska deca su u odnosu na ne-romsku pokazala značajno lošije rezultate i na TZŠ i na učiteljskoj proceni školskog postignuća. Što se tiče sredinskih činilaca, romska deca imala su edukativno znatno destimulativnije okruženje i niže roditeljske aspiracije u odnosu na obrazovanje, čak i od ne-romske dece iz porodica sa nižim ekonomskim statusom. Rezultati strukturalnog modeliranja pokazali su da najveći efekat na školsko postignuće dece ima intelektualno postignuće, a na ovo - socijalni status porodice i edukativna stimulacija. Naše istraživanje pokazuje da se, kao moderatorska varijabla, odnosno kao preduslov za testovnu efikasnost i, potom, uspešnost u školi, javljaju stimulativni edukativni uslovi. Implikacije naših rezultata su da u radu sa romskom decom posebnu pažnju treba posvetiti (predškolskim) aktivnostima koje bi doprinosile kognitivnom razvoju, kao i da u cilju podizanja obrazovnog nivoa romske populacije treba raditi na generalnom podizanju njihovih ambicija u odnosu na obrazovanje.

Ključne reči

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