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Medicinski podmladak
2018, vol. 69, br. 3, str. 56-62
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/mp69-18134

Creative Commons License 4.0
Uticaj vežbanja na kognitivne procese i neuroplastičnost
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet

e-adresa: allerasic@gmail.com

Sažetak

Tokom procesa evolucije mozak je razvio fantastičnu osobinu, neuroplastičnost, koja predstavlja kapacitet menjanja strukture i funkcije pod uticajem spoljašnje sredine i iskustva. Brojne su studije i dokazi koji ukazuju na povoljan uticaj fizičke aktivnosti i vežbanja na mozak i mentalno zdravlje. Smatra se da vežbanje dovodi do poboljšanja kognitivnih funkcija, sa posebnim akcentom na učenje i pamćenje. Takođe, utvrđeno je da vežbanje smanjuje rizik za razvoj demencije, ispoljava antidepresivni uticaj i odlaže pad kognitivnih funkcija tokom starenja. Blagotvorni uticaj na poboljšanje kognitivnih funkcija potvrđen je neurofiziološkim ispitivanjima koja su utvrdila povećanje volumena sive mase prefrontalnog i temporalnog režnja, smanjenje latence i povećanje amplitude evociranih potencijala kod fizičkih aktivnih osoba u poređenju sa sedentarnim kontrolama. Iako sama ideja o blagotvornim efektima vežbanja na mentalno zdravlje postoji vekovima, tek nedavno su studije ukazale na moguće mehanizme kojima se sinergistički ostvaruje pozitivan efekat. Kao glavni mehanizam izdvojila se povećana sinteza i oslobađanje neurotransmitera i neurotrofina koji zatim stimulišu neurogenezu, angiogenezu i neuroplastičnost. Vežbanje predstavlja potencijalnu adjuvantnu terapiju u lečenju neurodegenerativnih oboljenja, koja ne samo da bi smanjila troškove lečenja već i doprinela poboljšanju kvaliteta života i unapređenju mentalnog zdravlja pojedinca. Stoga je neophodno usmeriti istraživanja na rasvetljavanje i razumevanje mehanizama kojima vežbanje utiče na centralni nervni sistem.

Ključne reči

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