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Acta medica Medianae
2018, vol. 57, br. 2, str. 45-52
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5633/amm.2018.0208

Creative Commons License 4.0
Patofiziološki aspekti suplementacije oligoelementima kod sportista
aOdeljenje za kardiologiju, Klinički centar Niš, Niš + Univerzitet u Nišu, Medicinski fakultet
bUniverzitet u Nišu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za patofiziologiju
cUniverzitet u Nišu, Medicinski fakultet

Sažetak

Preduslov za postizanje vrhunskih sportskih rezultata je puno zdravlje i psihofizička utreniranost. Esencijalni oligoelementi su neophodni za normalno odvijanje biohemijskih i fizioloških procesa, iskorišćavanje energetskih i gradivnih materija i optimalno funkcionisanje samih mišića i njihovu skladnu povezanost sa drugim sistemima. Oligoelementi imaju važnu ulogu u energetskom metabolizmu tokom naporne fizičke aktivnosti, kao i stanjima povećane potrebe za kiseonikom, produkcije slobodnih radikala, aktivnosti skavendžer enzima i antioksidantne zaštite. Sportisti mogu imati deficit gvožđa zbog smanjenog dijetarnog unusa, gubitka krvi ili povećanih potreba usled fizičke aktivnost, međutim, suplementacija nije opravdana radi samog poboljšanja sportske uspešnosti, čak može biti i štetna. Poseban značaj bakar ima u biološkim procesima energetskog metabolizma, homeostaze gvožđa i antioksidantne zaštite. Sportistima se preporučuju dodatne količine bakra od 0,5 do 3,0 mg dnevno, iako velike doze nemaju ergogena svojstva. Takođe, sportisti imaju veće potrebe za cinkom i preporučuje im se suplementacija dodatnom količinom od 15 do 50 mg dnevno. Deficit mangana se najčešće javlja kod pothranjenih osoba, dok se potrebe za selenom kod dobro utreniranih sportista povećavaju u zavisnosti od energetske potrošnje. Bavljenje sportom, posebno kada se radi o dugotrajnim ekstremnim naporima, povećava potrebe za mikronutritivnim materijama. Sportistima treba obezbediti izbalansiranu ishranu i suplemantaciju oligoelementima koja će zadovoljiti njihove povećane potrebe u odnosu na preporučeni dnevni unos.

Ključne reči

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