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Zdravstvena zaštita
2003, vol. 32, br. 1, str. 49-61
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: stručni članak
objavljeno: 02/06/2007
Zarazne bolesti na teritoriji Beograda, postignuti rezultati i perspektive
Gradski zavod za zaštitu zdravlja, Beograd

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
The paper gives an overview of contagious diseases in the area of Belgrade in the two decades (1982- 2001). In the Belgrade area in that period we registered 1.050, 180 cases of contagious diseases (whose reporting is compulsory') Out of these. 46.47% were influenza- related; while 53.53% were other contagious diseases. The average Incidence rate was 3.137/ 100. 000 populations. Mortality rate was 2. 33/ 100, 000 populations. The average lethality rate was 0.14%. The incidence of contagious diseases has been registering a constant decrease, especially starting from 1990s, when we intensified the program of their control and eradication. Out of the total number of all cases, the number of cases of contagious diseases was 64.2% in the first decade and 35.8% in the following 10 years. Influenza has been registered as an outbreak for the past seven consecutive years. Until then it has had sporadic forms, being registered as such every second or third year. Mortality rates were low until 1989. when we first recorded AIDS- related deaths. In the second decade of the observed period. AIDS- related mortality rates have increased by four times, lethality rates by 8 times as compared to the first decade. Respiratory diseases are leading causes of morbidity: they participate with 61%; intestinal diseases are represented with 21%; skin, fungal and parasitary diseases with 12%. STDs with 2.7% and other diseases with 2.5%. Mortality rates of STDs- AIDS place them in the first position (with 70% of cases) in total mortality. In recent years, vaccine- preventable diseases have been recording extremely low rates of incidence, with measles and pertussis rates being under I/ 100.000 populations. After influenza, most frequently observed disease is chicken pox, contagious diarrheal disease, scabies, streptococcal infections of the throat and salmonella- related diseases. In the observed period we have registered 784 outbreaks: 70% of them were out of hospitals and 30% of them occurred within them. The number of outbreaks and of the cases has been in constant decrease in the two decades. Among the recorded outbreaks, most frequent were: alimentary (47.8%); contact- related (28.12%); respiratory (21.48%) and hydric (2.53%). Greatest number of cases was recorded in respiratory outbreaks (74. 1 %). Control and eradication of those diseases have been done through several national programs. Most successful was the Program of Compulsory Immunization. The results of those programs are: elimination of diptheria, polio, tetanus neonatorum and human rabies; disappearance of several diseases, such as typhus, paratyphus and antrax; low incidence of TB: decrease in incidence of all contagious diseases, the number of outbreaks and cases recorded in outbreaks.

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