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Strani pravni život
2019, br. 4, str. 93-102
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/spz63-23850
Još jedan pogled na američki konstitucionalizam i fenomen 'We the People'
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Pravni fakultet

Sažetak

Predmet ovog članka jeste analiza američkog konstitucionalizma, a u svetlosti istorijskog argumenta u ustavnoj interpretaciji i fenomena legitimizacije američkog Ustava posredstvom čuvene sintagme 'We the People' zabeležene u njegovoj preambuli. Članak tretira osobenosti istorijske teorije tumačenja ustava, imajući aspiraciju da čitaocu približi ovu školu mišljenja, pokuša da objasni njene pretpostavke i varijetete, sve braneći njene zaključke. Kako istoricizam u američkoj pravnoj književnosti odskora iznova pobuđuje pažnju američke doktrine, u samo središte debate nužno stavlja ne samo raspravu o adekvatnom metodu ustavne interpretacije, već i pitanje adekvatnosti i legitimiteta najdragocenije američke pravne ustanove - ustanove kontrole ustavnosti (judicial review). Pristalice istoricizma, naime, insistiraju na iznalaženju značenja i smisla ustava u samom tekstu ustava i njegovim izvorima, tzv. "originalnoj nameri" američkih očeva osnivača. Time zapravo podižu pravno-teorijski i politički ulog svake ustavne debate u SAD, a izazivajući dominirajuću američku misao o superiornosti suda - jedinom autoritetu vlasnom da tumačenjem fundamentalnih principa ustava otklanja slabosti i tenzije demokratskog političkog procesa.

Ključne reči

američki konstitucionalizam; ustavni istoricizam; tumačenje ustava; sudsko stvaranje prava; 'We the People' fenomen

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