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Medicinski časopis
2018, vol. 52, br. 3, str. 105-112
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/mckg52-18258


Dijagnoza hlamidijalne infekcije
aUniverzitet u Kragujevcu, Medicinski fakultet
bUniverzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet medicinskih nauka, Farmakologija i toksikologija, Kragujevac
cInstitut za javno zdravlje Kragujevac, Kragujevac
dKlinički centar Kragujevac, Ginekološko-akušerska klinika, Kragujevac

e-adresa: dejan.baskic@gmail.com

Sažetak

Hlamidijalna infekcija pogađa mlade seksualno aktivne osobe. Kao najčešća bakterijska seksualno prenosiva infekija širom sveta hlamidija može da dovede do ozbiljnih posledica na reproduktivnom traktu, uključujući pelvičnu inflamatornu bolest, ektopičnu trudnoću i neplodnost sa uzromom u jajovodima. Sa druge strane, iako je kod velikog broja žena imunski odgovor sposoban da sanira infekiju, infekija može asendentno da se širi u gornji reproduktivni trakt, gde može progradirati u perzistentnu infekiju. Dijagnostičke procedure za otkrivanje hlamidijalne infekcije uključuju direktne i indirektne metode. Lokalizovane, akutne infekcije se dijagnostikuju direktnom detekcijom patogena upotrebom ćelijske kulture, testova za kvalitativno otkrivanje antigena, testova hibridizacije i amplifikacije nukleinskih kiselina. U uslovima kada je infekcija prešla na gornji genitalni trakt, pogotovu u slučaju razvijene perzistentne infekcije dijagnoza se uglavnom postavlja indirektnim metodoma, detekcijom antitela na hlamidijalne antigene. Za dijagnozu akutne hlamidijalne infekcije neophodna je direktna detekija patogena u bolesničkom materijalu. Od svih direktnih dijagnostičkih testova, testovi amplifikacije nukleinskih kiselina su prema preporukama evropskog i američkog entra za kontrolu i prevenciju bolesti jedini testovi koji se mogu koristiti za dijagnozu akutne hlamidijalne infekcije. Ovi testovi se preporučuju zbog visoke senzitivnosti, specifičnosti i brzine dijagnostike. Za detekciju perzistentne hlamidijalne infekcije preporučuju se indirektni serološki testovi kojima se detektuje imunski odgovor, odnosno antitela specifična za hlamidijalne antigene. Naime uzorci seruma se relativno lako uzimaju, dok su uzorci tkiva sa mesta perzistentne infekcije najčešće ili teško dostupni ili nedostupni.

Ključne reči

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