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2020, vol. 54, br. 2, str. 75-82
Uloga oksidativnog stresa i sistema antioksidativne zaštite u parodontopatiji
Zavod za stomatologiju, Kragujevac

e-adresavesnaobrad@gmail.com
Ključne reči: oksidativni stres; antioksidansi: parodontopatija; lipidna peroksidacija; prenos signala
Sažetak
Prevalenca parodontalnih oboljenja veoma je visoka u adultnoj populaciji. Prema rezultatima istraživanja u SAD, čak je 46% ukupne populacije bilo zahvaćeno parodontalnom bolešću u periodu od 2010. do 2012, što znači da je 64,7 miliona ljudi imalo parodontopatiju, a od toga 8% tešku formu bolesti. Imajući u vidu klinički i socioekonomski značaj parodontopatije, ovaj pregledni rad ima za cilj da na sveobuhvatan način predstavi patogenetske aspekte, s posebnim osvrtom na oksidativni stres i antioksidativne mehanizme zaštite kao moguće molekularne mehanizme nastanka i razvoja parodontopatije kod odraslih. Oksidativni stres je uključen u progresiju ovog oboljenja kao hronične inflamatorne bolesti parodoncijuma, koji nastaje kao posledica neravnoteže između odgovora domaćina i bakterijske infekcije. U isto vreme nastaju i smanjena antioksidativna aktivnost i smanjen kapacitet pljuvačnih žlezda, što doprinosi daljem razvoju ove bolesti. MDA je najčešći derivat lipidne peroksidacije koji nastaje u parodontopatiji. Svi navedeni literaturni podaci navode na zaključke da povišene vrednosti MDA mogu biti posledica i lokalnog i sistemskog oksidativnog stresa kao odogovora na inflamatornu parodontalnu bolest, samostalno ili u kombinaciji s drugim sistemskim poremećajima i pušenjem. Štetni efekti ROS tokom oksidativnog stresa odigravaju se kroz procese lipidne peroksidacije i ireverzibilnu modifikaciju proteina do ćelijske apoptoze i programirane ćelijske smrti. Pored dva najznačajnija signalna puta (kaspaza put i NADPH oksidaza-4 put), još nekoliko signalnih puteva posreduje u oksidativnim oštećenjima ćelije: PERK/NRF2 signalni put, JNK/mitogen-aktivirajući put (MAP). Istraživači su otvoreni za ideju o uvođenju biohemijskih analiza koje bi pomogle u dijagnostikovanju inflamatornog procesa u parodoncijumu pre nego što on postane vidljiv na kliničkom nivou. Upravo iz tog razloga, nesumnjiv je značaj poznavanja uloge oksidativnog stresa, antioksidativne zaštite organizma kao i molekularnih mehanizama kojima oštećenje nastaje. Procena i merenje biomarkera oksidativnog stresa i enzima antioksidativne zaštite mogu imati veliki značaj u praćenju biohemijskih pokazatelja stanja parodoncijuma i čak pomoći različitim metodama lečenja parodontopatije.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5937/mckg54-24883
primljen: 20.01.2020.
prihvaćen: 25.11.2020.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 13.02.2021.

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