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2002, vol. 45, br. 3-4, str. 149-178
Tranzicija zemalja centralne i istočne Evrope u tržišnu privredu
Institut za spoljnu trgovinu, Beograd
Sažetak
Tranzicioni procesi u zemljama Centralne i Istočne Evrope (CIE) pružili su ubedljive dokaze o povezanosti makroekonomskih kretanja i strukturnih reformi. Nakon početne debate između 'graduelista' i onih koji su zastupali 'šok terapiju', odnosno onih koji su se zalagali za optimalnu brzinu reformi, postalo je očigledno da su reforme čvrsto međusobno povezane. Uspeh bilo koje pojedinačne politike zavisi od reformi na širokom frontu. Isto tako je potrebno izvesno vreme da bi se izgradile institucije koje podržavaju tržišni mehanizam. Time se središte debate pomerilo od brzine reformi na njihov obuhvat i čvrstinu. Novija kretanja u zemljama u tranziciji CIE potvrđuju tendencije tranzicije oformljene tokom poslednjih deset godina. Ovi obrasci razvoja obuhvataju liberalizaciju i privatizaciju pre nego što se razviju tržišne institucije, kao i jak uticaj društvenih, ekonomskih i političkih uslova sa početka tranzicije na budući napredak reformi. Zemlje u tranziciji Centralne Evrope (CE) su imale određene prednosti zbog relativno povoljnijih inicijalnih uslova, mada su početne pogodnosti postepeno iščezle. Ipak, tamo gde se održala tendencija liberalizacije uz obuhvatnu privatizaciju, otvorenost međunarodne trgovine i investicije, to je uticalo na stabilnost i čvrstinu tržišnih institucija. Treba istaći da ovakav postepen napredak nije bez teškoća. Postoje mnoge zamke koje mogu uhvatiti u klopku reformske procese. Tokom poslednjih deset godina, zemlje u tranziciji CIE ostvarile su izuzetan napredak na putu integracije u svetsku privredu. Međutim, napredak nije bio ravnomeran za sve zemlje. U nekim od naprednijih zemalja nosioci ekonomske politike se suočavaju sa brzim porastom uloge tržišta i velikim prilivom kapitala, što je praćeno srednjoročnim fiskalnim problemima kao u razvijenim privredama Evropske unije (EU). U drugim zemljama napredak nije bio ujednačen u važnim oblastima kao što su restrukturiranje preduzeća i banaka i reforma pravnog okvira, uz značajan posao koji preostaje da se uradi u procesu tranzicije ka tržišnoj privredi.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: članak
DOI: 10.2298/PRIZ0203149K
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 02.06.2007.