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Psihološka istraživanja
2012, vol. 15, br. 2, str. 115-133
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
doi:10.5937/PsIstra1202115B
Metakognitivne strategije tokom pevanja s lista
aUniverzitet umetnosti u Beogradu, Fakultet muzičkih umetnosti
bKraljevski konzervatorijum, Hag, Holandija

Projekat

Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije (MPNTR - 179018)

Sažetak

Članak predstavlja deo studije koja je zasnovana na interdisciplinarnom istraživanju pevanja s lista (psihologija muzike i muzička pedagogija). Naša namera je da povežemo psihološko znanje o kognitivnim procesima i praktični pristup nastavnika muzike, baziran na metodama, tehnikama i procedurama ovladavanja veštinama pevanja s lista. Nameravali smo da: 1. utvrdimo vrste i nivoe strategija kognitivnih procesa koje studenti muzike koriste tokom pevanja s lista; 2. istražimo strategije rešavanja problema kada se teškoće pojave; 3. ispitamo aspekte samoevaluacije studenata; 4. dovedemo u vezu kognitivne strategije koje studenti koriste s prethodnim iskustvom u učenju. Uzorak čini 89 studenata visokog muzičkog obrazovanja iz Beograda i Haga. Oni su popunjavali upitnik koja pokriva opšte podatke o njihovom muzičkom obrazovanju, različitim pitanjima pevanja s lista, kao što su planiranje, rešavanje problema, monitoring i evaluacija ishoda, kao i tri melodijska primera napisana u različitim muzičkim stilovima. Rezultati ukazuju na to da se strategije korišćene tokom pevanja s lista mogu grubo svrstati u tri grupe koje se razlikuju prema 'ključnim akcentima': kognitivne, intuitivne i bez strategije. Muzičke kognitivne strategije uključuju tri nivoa muzičke organizacije i reprezentacije: a) oslanjanje na manje sklopove muzičkog komada uz povezivanje s postojećim znanjem i iskustvom; b) oslanjanje na neznatno 'veću sliku' poznatih sklopova; c) mentalnu reprezentaciju melodijsko/harmonskih struktura. Kada je suočena s problemom, većina studenata koristi analitičke strategije. Poređenja poduzoraka pokazuju da, na primer, muzički izvođači u pristupu muzičkoj strukturi češće koriste razmišljanje 'od tona-do-tona' i strategije usmerene od 'dole prema gore', dok studenti teoretskih odseka imaju bolji uvid u celinu i koriste strategije usmerene od 'gore prema dole'. Nalazi stvaraju mogućnost za evaluaciju ishoda učenja i unapređivanje (poboljšanje) prakse podučavanja.

Ključne reči

veštine pevanja s lista; metakognitivne strategije; samoregulativno učenje

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