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2006, vol. 34, br. 4-5, str. 299-313
Dostignuća u oplemenjivanju suncokreta na otpornost prema bolestima, volovodu i insektima
Naučni institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo, Novi Sad

e-adresaskoricd@ifvcns.ns.ac.yu
Sažetak
Izvorna genetska osnova gajenog suncokreta je veoma uska i deficitarna u genima za otpornost prema prouzrokovačima bolesti, volovodu, insektima i drugim stresnim faktorima. Postojanje bliskih srodnika (divljih vrsta) u rodu Helianthus omogućava prevazilaženje većeg broja problema. Oplemenjivači suncokreta su uspeli da otkriju gene za otpornost prema više patogena u divljim vrstama i da ih ugrade, putem interspecies hibridizacije, u genotipove gajenog suncokreta. Međutim, brza pojava novih rasa kod plamenjače, rđe i volovoda zahteva od oplemenjivača stalnu aktivnost u pronalaženju i ugradnji novih gena. Uspešnim oplemenjivačkim zahvatima, iz divljih vrsta preneti su geni u genotipove gajenog suncokreta za otpornost prema Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, Verticillium wilt, Erysiphe cichoracearum i Orobanche cumana. Takođe, ugrađena je i visoka tolerantnost prema patogenima iz rodova Phomopsis, Macrophomina, Albugo i Alternaria. Pored toga, ostvarena je zavidna tolerantnost prema Sclerotinia i Phoma. Korišćenje novih metoda biotehnologije, a pre svega primena tehnika molekularnih markera, ubrzava pronalaženje novih izvora otpornosti. Ovo je veoma bitno kod bolesti gde je nasleđivanje poligenog karaktera. Oplemenjivanje suncokreta na otpornost prema insektima u dosadašnjem periodu je dalo skromnije rezultate, sa izuzetkom suncokretovog moljca, gde su pronađeni geni otpornosti i ugrađeni u genotipove gajenog suncokreta.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 02.06.2007.

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