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2021, vol. 8, br. 1, str. 1-10
Fizičko vaspitanje i zdrav život
aFIEP Europe, History of physical education and sport section, Belgrade
bUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
cUniverzitet u Prištini sa privremenim sedištem u Kosovskoj Mitrovici, Fakultet za sport i fizičko vaspitanje, Leposavić
dUniverzitet u Nišu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja

e-adresanenad.zivanovic46@gmail.com
Sažetak
Fizičko vaspitanje, kao jedno od područja fizičke kulture, koju možemo da definišemo kao: čovekovu delatnost, koja kao deo opšte kulture, znanjima O fizičkom vežbanju i znanjima ZA fizičko vežbanje unutar svojih područja (fizičkog vaspitanja, sporta i fizičke rekreacije), omogućava transformaciju ličnosti od stvarnog u moguće, predstavlja veoma važnu obrazovnu kariku. Naročito je to važno u vremenu koje se karakteriše ubrzanik tehnološkim napretkom i tehnicizmom koji čoveka sve brže uvodi u virtuelnu stvarnost. Zbog toga ističemo da fizičko vaspitanje znanjima O i ZA fizičko vežbanje, kod mladih ljudi gradi osnovu za zdrav, aktivan i dug život. To je moguće jer fizičko vaspitanje, oslonjeno na Teoriju teoantropocentrizma, fizičku vežbu vidi kao blagotvornu hranu neophodnu čoveku. To proishodi iz odnosa prema čoveku kao ličnosti, a ne individui. Sve prisutnija virtuelna stvarnost, u potpunom je saglasju sa sedećom kulturom, sve dominantnijoj ne samo u zapadnoj civilizaciji. To nesumnjivo dovodi do "aktivne" hipokinezije koja je u osnovi mnogih zabrinjavajućih promena i zdravstvenih problema. Antropološka istraživanja koja su obavljena u Srbiji i AP Vojvodini, potvrdila su da je sve manji broj ljudi koji se redovno bave fizičkim vežbanjem. Zbog toga i ukazujemo na značaj fizičkog vaspitanja koje znanjima o tome kako i zašto vežbati, izgrađuje svest o potrebi fizičkog vežbanja, kao i mogućnosti da se svaka fizička aktivnost sagleda i kao fizičko vežbanje.

Introduction

Physical education as a field of physical culture, potentionally defined as a human activity which in the areas of general knowledge, the knowledge OF physical exercise and the knowledge FOR physical exercise enables a transformation of personality from the real to the feasible within its limits [1], represents a very important link in education. It is of particular importance at the time characterized by advances in technology and technicism taking man into virtual reality with an increasing power. This is why we highlight the fact that physical education with the knowledge OF and the knowledge FOR physical exercise provides a solid foundation for a healthy, active and long life. Being such and the only correct one – healthy foundation is feasible because with physical education relying on the theo-anthropocentristic approach physical exercise can be considered as the most beneficial nutrient one may need, which results from the relationship with man as a person and not an individual.

The relationship to man as a person is based on the understanding – that spirituality is a thin line separating them. It is therefore very important what kind of knowledge and on what basis one can acquire. Of course, at present time with predominant Western culture, it is very difficult to build up knowledge on the spiritual value basis. This is because a vacant seat left after abandoned spirituality is now occupied by materiality that is, money. Thus, according to the Western materialistic principles, physical exercise has also become a merchandise for (costly) sale.

Another equally threatening issue is increasing hypokinesia. Reduced physical activity and thus reduced physical exercising results in imbalance and a complete discord between one's spiritual and material values in the given social circumstances. All of this affects not only one's health but also the nation's health.

Highlighting the fact that there are many various definitions of health, which only proves that the concept of the term itself is very complex, we can recall an early definition of health invented by the World Health Organization (WHO) where health is ''... a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.'' Although this very well-founded definition has been disregarded for some entirely different priorities of the culture we belong to, its complexity and treatment of man as the union of soul and body united in his personality should be pointed out. We emphasize the person and not the individual because there is indeed a significant difference between them in that the person is – open to others and the community whereas the individual is self-indulged and self-sufficient.

The third, also equally important, side of such reality of ours is a physical education teacher figure. Physical education teachers and their knowledge and commitment to transferring the knowledge OF physical exercise and knowledge FOR physical exercise have strong impact on the attitudes of their (former) students to physical activity and physical exercise later in their life. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, on the importance and value of physical exercise should remain an eternal value.

Here, and within a theoretical framework as well, is is very important to provide students with clear definitions of concepts, specifically, of physical activity and physical exercise.

Terminology (un)ambiguities

Nomen est omen, an old Latin phrase, reminds and advises to be wise and cautious when dealing with words and professional terminology in particular that is, they should be used very carefully. This is pointed out because the use of syntagmas – physical activity and physical exercise – as synonyms in professional practice and terminology has become a common practice.

Semantically vague, taken for granted and incorrect use of these terms as synonyms can result in very difficult and distorted conclusions, particularly in the high-level research. Therefore, certain differences between these terms and their conceptual frameworks because of which they cannot be considered synonyms should be indicated.

''Physical exercise is any move or movement one makes with a purpose of improving their psychophysical and motor skills characterized by the degree and intensity''[2]. At the same time, however, physical exercise is the most beneficial nutrient a human being may need.

''Physical activity is also a move or movement made with a purpose which is not necessarily physical exercise. This is commonly an activity aimed at doing everyday tasks: reaching, fetching, throwing, jumping over, going to..., etc.'' [2].

From these indications, it can be concluded that the purpose of a body move or movement dictates whether we talk about a physical exercise (exercising) or a physical activity. If (our) purpose is to complete a working or everyday need, then the moves or movements – that is, physical activity is not a physical exercise or exercising. However, if the purpose of moves or movements is to improve psychophysical and motor skills, then we can consider the given physical activity as physical exercising.

Of course, it happens that these purposes are combined into a single common purpose. For example, working in the garden, walking or riding a bicycle can serve two purposes at the same time: to do a work and to improve one's pshychophysical and motor skills.

Accordingly, it can be concluded that it is very important to use the syntagmas in question carefully in semantic terms. This is similar to two physical measures – weight and mass. Although the terms: weight and mass are often interchangeably used in everyday speech, they are two totally different concepts in physics. And they are not used as synonyms in physics whatsoever. Moreover, if they were used as synonyms in physics, it would not only be a sign of ignorance – misunderstanding of their meaning but can also lead to a confusion and a lack of reason for any further work and research.

Method

In order to use specific data on physical activity and physical exercise to highlight the importance of physical education in schools, which is the objective of this paper, the results obtained from the study: Eurobarometer – Physical Activity of Vojvodina Citizens as a part of European integration (Research – 2017; published in 2018) are presented. Survey research (survey items were created in compliance with Eurobarometer methodology – for the purpose of comparison) included a sample size of 1025 respondents, male and female, from 112 cities/towns in the AP of Vojvodina, Serbia.

Results and discussion

General information on the sample shown in Table 1 indicates that the sample is well balanced and representative of the population and that the obtained results can be used in furhter analyses of physical activity and physical exercise of the AP Vojvodina citizens.

Table 1. The sample, characteristics (1025 respondents)

Gender %
 Men 48
 Women 52
Total 100
Age %
 15 – 24 19
 25 – 39 21
 40 – 54 25
 55+ 35
Total 100
Subjective urbanisation %
 Rural village 22
 Small/mid size town 27
 Large town 51
Total 100

In addition, the results can be compared to the results of the study of physical activity and physical exercise of the European Union citizens. This is another good characteristic of the research in question.

Results obtained from the research in the AP Vojvodina, Serbia, and the European Union are compared in Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4.

Table 2. Frequency of engagement in exercising and playing sport (sport recreation)

AP Vojvodina, Serbia EU
Regularly 9% 7%
With some regularity 29% 23%
Seldom 27% 14%
Never 35% 46%

Table 3. Frequency of engagement in other physical activities (cycling, walking, dancing, gardening)

AP Vojvodina, Serbia EU
Regularly 24% 14%
With some regularity 42% 30%
Seldom 23% 21%
Never 10% 35%

Table 4. Motivators

AP Vojvodina, Serbia EU
To control your weight 27% 23%
To improve fitness 42% 47%
To relax 38% 38%
To have fun 18% 30%
To improve your health 54% 73%

The results show that more than a half of the citizens are inactive, which only provides evidence for the widespread ''sedentary'' lifestyle in the studied area. Furthermore, it is also interesting that improving health is the most common reason for engaging in physical activity and physical exercise. This brings hope that with this motivation together with having fun, physical exercise and physical activity directed to physical exercising can be considered as options of fighting adverse effects of our prevailing sedentary lifestyle.

Physical exercise as a beneficial nutrient

It has already been pointed out that physical exercise is (also) a beneficial nutrient needed by human beings. This is an undeniable fact derived from the acknowledged reality that man is – the union of body and soul, and that physical exercise is the food needed equally by the body and the soul.

Therefore, the knowledge OF physical exercise and the knowledge FOR physical exericse offered through physical education classes are important at the time of complete domination of ''sedentary'' lifestyle – with a tendency of being transformed into a ''couch potato'' lifestyle. This is not only a vision and a reminder of ancient Rome, which improved ''couch potato'' lifestyle through its voyeurism to perfection, but undeniable and threatening truth implied by the results of the study. The results show that more than a half of the citizens are physically inactive. Consequently, only the knowledge acquired in physical education classes can help us prevent increasing physical inactivity of European citizens which is usually followed by intelectual inactivity.

When health concerns and a wish to have fun and relax are additional motivations to drive and guide people to physical exercise, they should be used for the purpose. They can help bring physical exercise closer to people and demonstrate that it is a beneficial nutrient. The nutrient everyone needs.

Physical exercising and physical activity oriented toward physical exercising involve not only the time (the degree) and efforts (intensity) consumed. It is also emotionally experienced, as something pleasant or unpleasant, thus this aspect should also be taken into account. Being of indicative and emotional nature, one of the principal motivations guiding people to physical exercise is the very feeling generated by physical exercising that encourages them to break away from the hedonistic offer of ''sedentary'' lifestyle, stand up from the chair and start moving. A transformation from an inert condition, (also) motivated by pleasant physical exercise, is an immeasurable value of physical exercise and any physical activity oriented toward physical exercising. Consequently, as with any other nutrient, one should be careful when selecting it, taking into account preferences and wishes of each individual. Particular care should be taken about a variety of nutrients and physical exercises with young children. Subsequently, everyone will be able to choose from a variety of nutrients and physical exercises those that are most pleasing and suitable for their age.

An old Middle Ages wise saying suggests: the dose makes the poison. This means that one should be moderate in all things and also in physical exercise and any physical activity oriented toward physical exercising.

Health as the principal motivation driving and guiding people to physical exercising reminds us always to remember this Middle Ages saying.

Value of health should serve as a measure of knowledge offered by physical education.

Conclusion

The method applied in the anthropological research administered in the AP of Vojvodina, Serbian northern province, is in compliance with the method of Eurobarometer, which enables comparison of the obtained results. Analyzed results indicate a decreasing number of people engaged in regular physical exercise both in Serbia and Europe.

This observation is in alignment with the concept of the sedentary society, which is especially a characteristic of Western culture. This inevitably results in ''active'' hypokinesis, which is underlying many of concerning modifications and health problems.

Physical exercise, and physical activity oriented to physical exercising, is also the specific and beneficial nutrient needed by everyone. At the same time, physical exercise is the only opportunity – at the time of general technicism – to protect ourselves from intelectual inactivity (too). Time spent in physical exercising is time when we free ourselves from modern technological novelties that drive us away from our selves, the need which is to be even more noticeable in the near future.

Therefore, we highlight the importance of physical education which through its body of knowledge of how and why exercise can help build awareness of the need of physical exercising as well as opportunities to perceive any physical activity as physical exercise..

The main reason to engage in physical exercise is to improve health. And this means health which refers not merely to the absence of disease but also physical, mental and social well-being of ourselves and the society we live in. This motivation together with the motivation of having fun, which reflects another important aspect for any man, and the knowledge acquired at school can encourage people to transform and use any physical activity as physical exercise. And that regularly.

Theoretical and practical knowledge acquired at school provides understanding of the concept of physical exercising and approach to it as to ''healthy food'' around us and within ourselves. A good physical education teacher will use his or her example and love to plant seeds of required knowledge OF and knowledge FOR physical exercise into their students. This knowledge can help students abandon the sedentary society and turn to themselves – both at present, and later when they grow up.

School physical education classes and a good teacher are irreplaceable in the intensifying struggle against physical and intellectual inactivity.

References

1.Đorđić V, et al. EUROBAROMETER: Physical Activity of Vojvodina Citizens in the Context of EU Integration. Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education. 2020.
2.Ivashchenko S. Physical education and state strategic human resources: Hygienic aspects of military-patriotic education for young people by means of physical culture. Bratislava: Federation Internationale d'education Physique (FIEP). 2017.
3.Ivashchenko S. Historical preconditions of the origin of self-Olympic direction of physical culture in Ukraine. Fizičko vaspitanje i sport kroz vekove. 2019;6(2):24-33. [Crossref]
4.Ivashchenko S. Innovations in physical education in high schools of Ukraine. Bratislava: Slovak Scientific Society. 2020.
5.Živanović N, et al. Teorija fizičke kulture. Niš: Panoptikum. 2010.
6.Milošević Z, Nenad Ž. Teorija fizičke kulture. Novi Sad: Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja. 2020.
Reference
Đorđić, V., et al. (2020) EUROBAROMETER: Physical Activity of Vojvodina Citizens in the Context of EU Integration. Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education
Ivashchenko, S. (2017) Physical education and state strategic human resources: Hygienic aspects of military-patriotic education for young people by means of physical culture. Bratislava: Federation Internationale d'education Physique (FIEP)
Ivashchenko, S. (2019) Historical preconditions of the origin of self-Olympic direction of physical culture in Ukraine. Fizičko vaspitanje i sport kroz vekove, vol. 6, br. 2, str. 24-33
Ivashchenko, S. (2020) Innovations in physical education in high schools of Ukraine. Bratislava: Slovak Scientific Society
Milošević, Z., Nenad, Ž. (2020) Teorija fizičke kulture. Novi Sad: Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
Živanović, N., et al. (2010) Teorija fizičke kulture. Niš: Panoptikum
 

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/spes2101001Z
primljen: 04.05.2021.
prihvaćen: 08.06.2021.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 21.07.2021.

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