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2010, vol. 51, br. 2, str. 159-168
Nutritivna vrednost kalifornijske pastrmke (Oncorhynchus mykiss) i šarana (Cyprinus carpio) iz akvakulture
aInstitut za higijenu i tehnologiju mesa, Beograd
bRG 'Ečka' AD, Lukino Selo

e-adresadaniv@inmesbgd.com
Projekat:
Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 20122

Sažetak
Visok sadržaj proteina, nizak sadržaj masti i relativno nizak sadržaj holesterola, kao i značajan sadržaj minerala, vitamina i esencijalnih masnih kiselina (n-3), svrstavaju ribu u jednu od nutritivno najvrednijih namirnica u ishrani ljudi. Potrošnja mesa krupne stoke u našoj zemlji približna je potrošnji mesa u svetu i iznosi oko 40 kg po stanovniku godišnje, a potrošnja ribe, prema proceni obima proizvodnje i uvoza, samo 4,5 do 5,0 kg. U ponudi, na našem tržištu, najzastupljenija je slatkovodna riba iz akvakulture, odnosno šaranske i pastrmske vrste (šaran, amur, tolstolobik i pastrmka). Kalifornijska pastrmka (Onchorhynchys mykiss) jedna je od najpoznatijih vrsta ribe u prirodi, ali je u mnogim zemljama poznata i prihvaćena kao uzgajana vrsta, zbog brzog rasta i odličnog nutritivnog kvaliteta. Šaran (Cyprinus carpio L.) najzastupljenija je riba toplovodnih ribnjaka, koju odlikuju mnogobrojni kvaliteti i čije meso je hranljivo i ukusno. Cilj ovoga rada je bio da se odredi osnovni hemijski sastav i sadržaj holesterola u uzorcima konzumne pastrmke i šarana, koji su uzorkovani u martu, junu i septembru 2009. godine, odnosno u septembru, oktobru i decembru 2009. godine, respektivno, i da se, zbog značaja u ishrani stanovništva, na osnovu dobijenih rezultata izračuna energetska vrednost fileta ispitanih pastrmki i šarana. Eksperimentalni podaci su statistički obrađeni analizom varijanse (ANOVA test) na nivou značajnosti p = 0,05. Prosečne telesne mase i dužine analiziranih pastrmki u ispitanom periodu su se statistički značajno razlikovale, što je posledica različitog sadržaja masti u konzumiranoj hrani i činjenice da nisu poticale iz istog matičnog jata. U periodu od septembra do decembra 2009. godine, značajno je povećana prosečna masa ispitanih jedinki šarana. Prosečan sadržaj proteina u filetima pastrmke i šarana bio je od 17,34% do 17,81% i od 17,11% do 18,28%, respektivno. Sadržaj masti i holesterola je bio niži u pastrmci (od 1,28% do 2,28% masti i od 44,12 mg/100 g do 46,47 mg/100 g holesterola) u poređenju sa šaranom (od 3,02% do 4,71% masti i od 48,55 mg/100 g do 53,17 mg/100 g holesterola). Prosečan sadržaj vode u pastrmci je bio veći (od 78,40% do 79,88% u odnosu na prosečan sadržaj vode u šaranu (od 75,72% do 78,83%). Prosečan sadržaj pepela u ispitanim filetima pastrmke i šarana je bio blizak i kretao se od 1,19% do 1,35%, odnosno od 1,04% do 1,12%, respektivno.
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