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2020, vol. 36, br. 4, str. 393-406
Uticaj uslova gajenja ovaca i koza na reprodukciju, prirast, mlečnost i kvalitet mesa i mleka
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet
bSs.Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, Skopje, Republic of Northern Macedonia
cInstitut za stočarstvo, Beograd-Zemun

e-adresahristovs@agrif.bg.ac.rs
Projekat:
Optimizacija tehnoloških postupaka i zootehničkih resursa na farmama u cilju unapređenja održivosti proizvodnje mleka (MPNTR - 31086)

Ključne reči: uslovi držanja; reprodukcija; proizvodnja; ovce; koze
Sažetak
Najvažniji stresori kod nas su nepovoljni klimatski i nutritivni uslovi. Ekstremna odstupanja u klimatskim i nutritivnim uslovima predstavljaju neposredne stresore za organizam ovaca i koza. Apetit kod ovaca i koza se smanjuje ako su one izložene izrazito visokim ambijentalnim temperaturama, dok hladnoća povećava energetske potrebe organizma i dovodi do mobilizacije masti iz masnog tkiva organizma i posledične oksidacije masti i stvaranja neesterifikovanih masnih kiselina. Aktivnost štitne žlezde je smanjena kada su ove životinje izložene visokim temperaturama, a povećana kada su izložene hladnoći. U ambijentu sa visokim temperaturama smanjuju se koncentracije glukoze i holesterola u krvi usled neuspešnog održavanja homeostaze. Ovce i koze se prirodno drže u grupi čime se u osnovi štite od predatora. One uspešno registruju delovanje novih stimulusa, naročito buke i iznenadnih pokreta predatora u blizini. Rano odbijanje prekida vezu majke i mladunčeta i nepovoljno utiče na razvoj normalnih bihejvioralnih odnosa kod mladunčadi, jer veštački sistemi ishrane ne zadovoljavaju u potpunosti potrebe oralne aktivnosti, pa se često javlja sisanje pupčane i skrotalne regije. Ispitivanja uticaja različitih tehnoloških postupaka na reaktivnost kore nadbubrežne žlezde ukazuju da je izdvajanje jedinke iz stada i imobilizacija predstavljaju najznačajnije stimuluse. Električno omamljivanje ovaca na klanici izaziva znatnu stimulaciju simpatičkog sistema sa naglim oslobađanjem adrenalina i noradrenalina. U uslovima intenzivne proizvodnje najznačajniji stresori i fiziološka stanja koja dovode do stresa su: porođaj, rođenje, puerperalni period, odbijanje mladunčadi, estrus, visoki graviditet, razni hirurški postupci, veterinarske i zootehničke mere, ekstremna variranja mikroi makroklimatskih uslova, variranja u količini i kvalitetu hrane i dr.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.2298/BAH2004393H
primljen: 09.12.2020.
prihvaćen: 20.12.2020.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 06.01.2021.
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