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2020, vol. 11, br. 2, str. 532-553
Ljudska prava u investicionim arbitražnim slučajevima - nova perspektiva?
Modul University Vienna, Vienna, Austria

e-adresataidabegic@hotmail.com
Sažetak
Razmatranje pitanja ljudskih prava postaje sve značajnije i u kontekstu investicione arbitraže, tj. arbitraže na osnovu međunarodnih investicionih sporazuma (osobito bilateralnih investicionih sporazuma (BITs) i sveobuhvatnih sporazuma o slobodnoj trgovini (FTAs with investment chapters). Kako je riječ o tzv. mješovitoj arbitraži, tj. arbitraži gdje je jedna strana država, a druga strana strani investitor (fizičko ili pravno lice, a najčešće velike kompanije i multinacionalne korporacije), aktuelizira se i pitanje odgovornosti ne samo države već i investitora (odnosno korporacija) za povrede ljudskih prava u državi prijema tokom investicione aktivnosti. U uvodnom dijelu rada objašnjava se funkcioniranje međunarodnih instrumenata za zaštitu investicija koji imaju za cilj da obezbjede što veću pravnu zaštitu stranog ulaganja, te efikasno rješavanje sporova koji mogu nastati tokom investiranja, i to prvenstveno u vidu proceduralnog mehanizma međunarodne arbitraže. Dakle, primarni cilj ovih instrumenata je promocija stranih ulaganja i pravna zaštita investitora, odnosno investicija. Shodno tome, međunarodni investicioni sporazumi, najčešće, ne sadrže odredbe o obavezama investitora. Ukoliko država (host state) svojom intervencijom, odnosno regulacionom aktivnošću naruši prava investitora koja proističu iz ulaganja, utvrđuje se odgovornost države za kršenje međunarodnih obaveza proisteklih iz investicionih sporazuma (npr. BITs). Time se kapacitet, odnosno mogućnost države domaćina da regulira i donosi mjere usmjerene ka zaštiti javnog interesa u oblasti ljudskih prava (ali i zaštite životne sredine, zdravlja stanovništva itd.) može znatno smanjiti i onemogućiti. Rad, takođe, daje uvid u kompleksan odnos ili, radije, tenzije, koje nastaju u primjeni međunarodnog investicionog prava i ljudskih prava. Tako se, zbog izrazite porasti moći i aktivnosti multinacionalnih korporacija, opravdano preispituje njihov međunarodnopravni subjektivitet, osobito u kontekstu zaštite stranih ulaganja i zaštite ljudskih prava. Dosadašnja neobavezujuća načela uglavnom definišu šta bi države i korporacije trebalo da poduzmu kako bi se spriječila kršenja ljudskih prava od strane korporacija i ostalih privrednih subjekata (npr. Rukovodeća načela UN o biznisu i ljudskim pravima). Kao predmet rasprave u meritumu investicionog spora najčešće se javljaju tužbeni zahtjevi investitora zasnovani na odgovornosti države za povrede nekih od odredaba investicionog sporazuma (npr. eksproprijacija bez odgovarajućeg postupka i naknade, "fer i pravedni" tretman itd). Istovremeno, investiciona aktivnost može i u određenom broju slučajeva negativno se odražava na ljudska prava u državi u koju se investira. Države prijema stranih ulaganja, u namjeri da se "odbrane" od tužbenih zahtjeva investitora, posežu za argumentima koji imaju uporište u instrumentima za zaštitu ljudskih prava. Zapravo, u nekim slučajevima obaveze koje proizilaze za državu iz investicionih sporazuma u direktnom su konfliktu sa obavezama koje proizilaze iz instrumenata za zaštitu ljudskih prava. U tom smislu, rad se fokusira na mogućnost da tužena država koristi protivtužbu (counterclaim) kao instrument/sredstvo za utvrđivanje odgovornosti stranih investitora zbog kršenja ljudskih prava. Iz te perspektive su analizirane dvije ICSID arbitražne odluke (awards) - Urbaser protiv Argentine i Bear Creek protiv Perua - koje, po mišljenju autora, nagovještavaju progresivniji pristup arbitražnog tribunala pitanju mogućnosti podnošenja protivtužbe, kao i pitanju odgovornosti investitora za povrede ljudskih prava. Rad, naravno, ukazuje na probleme i izazove koji se javljaju u kontekstu mogućnosti upotrebe protivtužbe u ovoj vrsti investicionih sporova. Navedeni problemi su kako proceduralne tako i substantivne prirode (neophodnost saglasnosti stranaka, direktna veza između predmeta spora i protivtužbe, materijalnopravni osnov odgovornosti investitora za povredu ljudskih prava itd.). Za mnoge, riječ je o objektivnim ograničenjima investicione arbitraže. Shodno tome, rad ukazuje na važnost postojanja jasnih klauzula o obavezama investitora u investicionim sporazumima. Konačno, iako je dosadašnja arbitražna praksa bila manje naklonjena mogućnosti razmatranja pitanja ljudskih prava u investicionim sporovima (prvenstveno iz razloga nadležnosti, ali i drugih), dojam je da se povećavaju izgledi za mogućnost korištenja protivtužbe u investicionoj arbitraži kao neophodnog mehanizma koji može 'izbalansirati' prava i obaveze strana u sporu. Takav pristup može doprinijeti ponovnom jačanju 'legitimiteta' međunarodne investicione arbitraže, kao i ciljevima održivog razvoja.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/pravzap0-28839
primljen: 13.10.2020.
prihvaćen: 25.11.2020.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 16.01.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0