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2020, vol. 11, br. 2, str. 385-412
Novo balansiranje ljudskih prava u doba pandemije Covida-19
Central European University, Budapest, Hungary + Center for Ethics and Law in Biomedicine (CELAB)

e-adresasandorj@ceu.edu
Ključne reči: pandemija Covida-19; ljudska prava; pravo na zdravlje; bioetika; novo balansiranje ljudskih prava
Sažetak
Godina 2020. sigurno će se spominjati u svim budućim knjigama o istoriji epidemiologije, a o pandemiji Covida-19 raspravljaće se kao o možda najznačajnijem zdravstvenom izazovu počev od španske groznice. Nadam se, ipak, da će se o ovom periodu govoriti i u novim knjigama o zdravstvu i ljudskim pravima. Patnja miliona ljudi širom sveta, smrt i medicinski izazovi doveli su do mnogih pouka iz kojih se već sad može učiti. Pandemija Covida-19 predstavlja krizu javnog zdravlja koja je otežala poštovanje prava na zdravlje. Štaviše, odgovori na pandemiju izazvali su značajne dileme u zaštiti širokog spektra ljudskih prava koja su temelj za fizičko i mentalno zdravlje i socijalno blagostanje pojedinca. Da bi se izvukle konačne lekcije iz zdravstvene politike i epidemiologije, potrebno je prikupiti dovoljno podataka, što zahteva izvesno vreme. Moj cilj u ovom članku jeste da ispitam uticaj pandemije Covida-19 na zaštitu ljudskih prava. Ono što u ovom radu tvrdim jeste da globalna pandemija Covida-19 pogađa sva ljudska prava, a naročito pravo na život, slobodu izražavanja, pravo na privatnost, pravo na nediskriminaciju itd. U radu sam se, međutim, fokusirala uglavnom na uticaj pandemije na prava u zdravstvu iz perspektive feminističke etike, a posebno na pravo na zdravlje. Pored toga razmotrila sam i ugroženost prava na odbijanje tretmana i prava na privatnost, prava posebno osetljivih grupa, ali i prava medicinskih radnika. Razradila sam osetljiviji bioetički pristup koji se zasniva na principu brige za razliku od utilitarnih razmatranja. Iako su moje istraživanje i analiza zasnovani prvenstveno na primeru Mađarske tokom dva talasa pandemije, moja procena o stepenu ugroženosti ljudskih prava uzima u obzir, naravno, i globalni uticaj pandemije. Jedna od lekcija u borbi protiv pandemije trebalo bi da bude priznavanje prava na zdravlje kao punopravnog ljudskog i ustavnog prava koje zaslužuje mnogo veću pažnju prilikom izrade nacionalnih godišnjih budžeta. Pravo na zdravlje trebalo bi smatrati osnovnim ljudskim pravom bez kojeg se ne mogu ostvariti nikakva druga prava, ne samo u epidemiološkim krizama nego i posle njih. Drugim rečima, ukoliko pojedinac nema pristup zdravstvenoj zaštiti ili informacijama koje se tiču zdravstvene zaštite, ni njeno/njegovo osnovno pravo - pravo na život ne može biti zaštićeno. Osim toga, smatram da su odgovori na pandemiju bazirani na feminističkoj etici mnogo efikasniji i pravičniji nego odgovori koji polaze od utilitarističkog pristupa.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/pravzap0-29359
primljen: 01.11.2020.
prihvaćen: 25.11.2020.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 16.01.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0

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