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2013, vol. 29, br. 2, str. 233-250
Ciljevi i pristupi u proizvodnji višegodišnjih leguminoza za upotrebu na privremenim pašnjacima
aSoybean Experimental Station, Pavlikeni, Bulgaria
bResearch Institute of Mountain Stockbreeding and Agriculture, Troyan, Bulgaria

e-adresagmvg@abv.bg
Ključne reči: forage legumes; breeding for grazing use
Sažetak
Leguminoze su glavni element ekosistema travnjaka od čega zavisi kvalitet krmnih biljaka. Oplemenjivanje pašnjačkih sorti višegodišnjih leguminoza prvo ima za cilj postizanje tolerancije i upornosti komponente leguminoze u u pašnjaku. Kod vrsta koje imaju nisku prirodnu toleranciju ispaše (lucerka i crvena detelina), neophodno je sprovesti uzgoj za biološke, morfološke i fiziološke karakteristike, u direktnoj vezi sa tolerancijom ispaše. U vrstama koje imaju visoku toleranciju ispaše (bela detelina, žuti zvezdan, esparzeta), perzistencija se smatra funkcijom pojedinih morfoloških karakteristika, adaptivni potencijalom i tolerancijom na stres. Indirektno gajenje na perzistenciju pašnjaka uključuje i oplemenjivanje na konkurentsku sposobnost i koadaptivnost vrsta trave sa pašnjacima prilagođeno regionu i praksi kultivacije, kao i uzgoja na poboljšanju nodulaciju i fiksaciju azota kao važan element adaptivne sposobnosti. Oplemenjivanje na toleranciju ispaše i istrajnost je takođe koncentrisano na mehanizmima samostalnog održavanja mahunarki na pašnjacima - vegetativnog razmnožavanja, širi i samo-setve. Mnogi programi za uzgoj su takođe usmerena na morfologiju kojom se obezbeđuje bolji unos od strane životinja, na magistralne i specifične karakteristike kvaliteta, na faktor anti-nutrijenata, na prilagođavanje sistemu i praksi osnivanja i korišćenja pašnjaka. Strategije oplemenjivanja korišćenjem germplazme konsolidovana kroz specifične mehanizme adaptacije na nepovoljne ili određene agroekološke uslove i uticaje - tj kultivacije kroz ekotipičnu selekcije se smatra da je najefikasnija za svrhu ispaše. Interakcije u sistemu: pašnjačke vrste - prateće vrste u pašnjačkoj zajednici zeljastih biljaka - ispaša životinja (vrsta, kategorija, stil ispaše i bihaviurlne reakcije) i primenjeni režim korišćenja pašnjaka je direktan i jak. Ove interakcije su od suštinskog značaja u genotipskim diferencijacijama ekotipova pašnjaka. Adaptivna varijabilnost ekotipova pašnjaka se direktno koristi, kao i u rekombinantnom oplemenjivanju.
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