• citations in SCIndeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[]
  • visits in previous 30 days:16
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:7


article: 1 from 9  
Back back to result list
2021, vol. 7, iss. 1, pp. 131-163
Perspectives on LNG competitiveness: An overview of the EU market
Institute of European Studies, Belgrade
Keywords: Liquefied natural gas; LNG; EU gas market; LNG Terminals
In this paper we research the development and competitiveness of the LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) market in the European Union, especially in its member states located in west and south of Europe. First, we analyze legal and regulatory framework at the EU level, under which LNG terminals and facilities operate. In addition to content analysis, we also compare trends in the European LNG market with trends in other regions, especially in the Asian LNG market. The result of the research highlights the changed structure of the EU's gas market, characterized by larger imports of liquefied natural gas, especially since the end of 2018, as well as increased number of terminals and capacities for receiving liquefied gas. However, the growth in the share of liquefied gas in total import was not linear in the previous years. As a part of the discussion we examine three possible scenarios regarding the future of LNG market in the European Union, and we conclude that the perspective of LNG in the market will primarly depend on price competitiveness comparing it to pipeline gas transport.
*** (2009) Directive 2009/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and repealing Directive 2003/55/EC
*** (2009) Regulation 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 on conditions for access to the natural gas transmission networks and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1775/2005
*** (2009) Regulation 347/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2013 on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure and repealing Decision No 1364/2006/EC and amending Regulations (EC) No 713/2009. (EC) No 714/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009
*** (2013) Regulation 1316/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 establishing the Connecting Europe Facility, amending Regulation (EU) No 913/2010 and repealing Regulations (EC) No 680/2007 and (EC) No 67/2010
*** Shell LNG Outlook 2019: Presentation. Royal Dutch Shell, (dostupno na: b2d0703a25fc4/lng-outlook-feb25.pdf )
*** (2019) Annex VII to Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) amending Regulation (EU) No 347/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the Union list of projects of common interest. Brussels, 31.10
*** (2003) Directive 2003/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 Concerning Common Rules for the Internal Market in Natural Gas and Repealing Directive 98/30/ECRegulation 1228/2003/EC
Aguilera, R.F., Radetzki, M. (2014) The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation. Mineral Economics, 26(3): 75-84
Beriša, H., Rakić, M. (2018) Vojna moć vodećih svetskih zemalja i deficit resursa. Vojno delo, vol. 70, br. 3, str. 21-37
Clemente, J. (2019) China Is The World's Largest Oil & Gas Importer. Forbes, (dostupno na:
Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) (2019) How to Foster LNG Markets in Europe. in: CEER Report: Liquefied Natural Gas Work Stream of Gas Working Group
Cox, E. (2020) Europe dominates LNG import story in 2019. Gasworld, (dostupno na:
Dašić, M. (2014) Energetska bezbednost zemalja Jugoistočne Evrope kao faktor regionalnog razvoja. Oditor, 7: 8-12
Desem, V. (2009) Dutch Closing Europe's Biggest Gas Field Raises Concerns for Hub. Bloomberg, (dostupno:
Dorigoni, S., Portatadino, S. (2008) LNG development across Europe: Infrastructural and regulatory analysis. Energy Policy, 36(9): 3366-3373
Enerdata (2016) Enagas' El Musel LNG plant declared illegal by Spanish Supreme Court. (dostupno na:
Eurostat (2019) Natural gas supply statistics. (dostupno na:
Fulwood, M. (2019) LNG supply/demand balances, 2018-2025: Is there a problem?. in: LNG in Transition: From Uncertainty to Uncertainty, Oxford Energy Forum, Issue 119
Hopkins, P. (2007) Oil and Gas Pipelines: Yesterday and Today. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)-Pipeline Systems Division
Jensen, J.T. (2004) The Development of a Global LNG Market Is it Likely? If so, When?. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, NG 5
King&Spalding (2018) LNG IN Europe 2018: An Overview of LNG Import Terminals in Europe
Kravtsova, E. (2020) Europe's LNG imports expected to soar to 100 mln tonnes in 2020. Reuters, (dostupno na:
Market Observatory for Energy-DG Energy (2019) Quarterly Report Energy on European Gas Markets. Volume 13, Issue 3
Obrenović, S. (2020) Nastavak gasnog (ne)sporazuma? Gasprom, Naftogas i tranzit ruskog gasa u Evropu nakon 2019. Kultura polisa, 42: 261-277
Oil&Gas360 (2019) European LNG imports are at record levels this year. (dostupno na:
Radiš, D. (2018) Analiza rezervi, proizvodnje i potrošnje zemnog gasa u svetu i njegov ekonomski značaj za svetsko tržište energenata u budućnosti. Ekonomski signali: poslovni magazin, vol. 13, br. 1, str. 83-102
Stanojević, P., Mišev, G. (2018) Novi trendovi u međunarodno-političkoj dinamici trgovine prirodnim gasom. Međunarodni problemi, LXX: 305-336
Talus, K. (2009) Access to Gas Markets: A Comparative Study on Access to LNG Terminals in the European Union and the United States. Houston Journal of International Law, 31(2): 343-376
Wood, D.A. (2016) Natural gas imports to Europe: The frontline of competition between LNG and pipeline supplies. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 36: A1-A4
Yafimava, K. (2020) Finding a home'for global LNG in Europe: Understanding the complexity of access rules for EU import terminals. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, NG 157
Zaretskaya, V., Justin, K. (2018) Europe's liquefied natural gas imports have increased lately, but remain below 2011 peak. U.S. Energy Information Administration, (dostupno na:
Zhang, D., Shi, M., Shi, X. (2018) Oil indexation, market fundamentals, and natural gas prices: An investigation of the Asian premium in natural gas trade. Energy Economics, 69: 33-41


article language: Serbian, English
document type: Review Paper
DOI: 10.5937/Oditor2101131O
received: 19/12/2020
accepted: 01/02/2021
published in SCIndeks: 29/04/2021
Creative Commons License 4.0

Related records

No related records