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2016, vol. 25, br. 2, str. 81-91
Effects of soil tillage system on yield and weeding level in wheat crop
(naslov ne postoji na srpskom)
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

e-adresamoraru_paulaioana@yahoo.com, lech.szajdak@isrl.poz
Projekat:
Project of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS-UEFISCDI, nr. PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-0884

Ključne reči: sistemi obrade zemljišta; minimalna obrada; rotacija useva; zakorovljenost
Sažetak
Rad predstavlja rezultate prinosa i promene nivoa zakorovljenosti u usevu pšenice, kao deo trogodišnje rotacije soja- ozima pšenica-kukuruz, sa uvođenjem varijanti minimalne obrade zemljišta sa: rotacionom drljačom, plugom podrivačem i kosim plugom. Eksperimenti su sprovedeni na Phaeozem poljoprivrednom tipu zemljišta u transilvanijskoj ravnici, sa konvencionalnim i četiri sistema minimalne obrade zemljišta. Na nivo zakorovljenosti uticao je tip sistema obrade zemljišta, u periodu od faze klijanja do žetve useva pšenice. U fazi klija­nja useva, ukupan broj korova iznosio je 31,8 korova/m2 u varijanti sa oranjem+obrada rotacionom drljačom i između 31,6-34,7 korova/m2 u varijanti minimalna obrada zemljišta. Povećan broj višegodišnjih dikotiledonih korova može biti registrovan u varijanti minimalna obrada zemljišta (između 1,2-1,6 korova/m2), u poređenju sa varijantom oranje+obrada ro­tacionom drljačom (0,9 korova/m2). U stadijumu žetve useva, broj korova bio je 8,2-50,6% viši u varijantama sa minimalnom obradom zemljišta, u poređenju sa kovencionalnim sistemom obrade. Smanjenje procenta jednogodišnjih dikotiledonih korova očigledan je, 85,9% u varijanti sa plugom, i 71,5-78,9% u varijanti minimalnaobrada zemljišta, sa povećanjem kod višegodišnjih dikotiledonih korova (sa 7,9% na 8,4-13,8%) i monokotiledonih korova (sa 6,2 na 11,6-20%). Promene u florističkom sastavu ukazuju na potrebu za promenom strategije kontrole korova u usevu ozime pšenice, u varijantama minimalne obrade zemljišta. Povećanje procenta višegodišnjih dikotiledonih korova za 59% (sa 7,9% na 13,8%) dovodi do neophodnosti za uzgojem ozime pšenice u rotaciji useva sa leguminozama, uz primenu specifičnih herbicida, u prethodnim usevima i usevu pšenice. Zastupljenost monokotiledonih korova od 11,6% do 20,0% naglašava neophodnost za primenom različitih strategija kontrole i korelacije, za nivo zakorovljenosti kao i tip korova, uključujući tu i njihov jednogodišnji ili višegodišnji karakter. Prinosi koji su ostvareni primenom sistema minimalne obrade zemljišta kretali su se oko 97,8-98,2%, kada se obrada kosim plugom i plugom podrivačem porede sa oranjem i bili su značajno niži u varijanti obrade rotacionom drljačom, dok je u tom slučaju nivo zakorovljenosti bio najviši.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/ActaHerb1602081M
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 08.02.2019.