• citations in SCIndeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[]
  • visits in previous 30 days:16
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:9


article: 2 from 11  
Back back to result list
2019, vol. 73, iss. 2, pp. 174-189
Periodization models in the research of the muscle strength in athletes, theoretical-methodological reductions or non-critical positivism in sport-scientific periodics
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sports and Physical Education
Keywords: periodization; muscle strength; cognitive paradigm; methodological inconsistency; sport-scientific periodics
Periodization is a theoretical and practical construct of sports training that relates to the programming of training activities in mutually dependent periods of time in order to induce specific physiological adaptations. During training and competition processes, it is used to achieve results at the specific competition. The theoretical and practical foundations of the periodization process can also be studied from the aspect of its impact on biomotor abilities. In this context, the general position for the study of periodization include research covering the impact of different periodization models on muscle strength (the subject of this paper). Based on an analysis of the content, meaning, methodological orientation, and conclusion within a selected number of published studies/papers, it cannot be ascertained whether periodized training models, in the muscle strength area, give better results than the non-periodized model, or which periodized model gives better results at all. The above-mentioned dilemmas regarding the subject of this work have also been confirmed in several review papers and meta-analyses. However, by examining the methodological and theoretical context of these studies, a number of dilemmas are evident, primarily those related to the sample of the subjects. Namely, none of the analyzed studies focused only on the athletes as a target group, but instead, the results of the research performed on athletes were analyzed in relation to a group of recreational or non-trained subjects. Also, there is a discrepancy in the terminology of the applied periodization models, which opens up the question regarding the existence of a clear theoretical concept and methodological-organizational construct that aims to achieve a competitive result. It can be assumed that a clear analysis of the original context of the phenomenon of periodization, harmonization of methodical and methodological steps in the process of learning, clear distinction towards existing definitions and terminology, resulted in the optimization of the learning process that will lead to recognition of the periodization model, which will result in optimization of the training-competitive preparations goals. Therefore, the problem of this paper derived from the theoretical and methodological inconsistency of the researchers in areas covering the influence of different periodization models on athletes' strength. The aim of the paper was to analyze and determine the facts of the methodological and theoretical construct of periodization, the conclusions of various studies, which can be said to - despite publication in important international journals - lead to confusion in the area of the conclusion about the influence of different periodization models on the strength of athletes. After examining more than 80 papers published in refereed journals, and by selection in relation to the theoretical-methodological context and the context of deductive conclusions, 10 studies have been selected, in which the influence of different periodization models on the strength of athletes, while performing exercises with arms and legs, were compared. The results indicate that the applied periodized models, especially the block model, showed a higher degree of sensitivity towards the development of athletes' strength, but several important questions were also raised regarding the validity of the conclusions on this subject. However, the outcome and the purpose of this research is to present a more comprehensible definition of the periodization phenomenon and its models, as well as to identify the effects of the experimental factor in the function of the biomotor response of the subjects to the training stimuli.
Afonso, J., Nikolaidis, P.T., Sousa, P., Mesquita, I. (2017) Is empirical research on periodization trustworthy?: A comprehensive review of conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 16(1): 27-34
Baechle, T.R., Earle, R.W. (2008) Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Champaign: Human Kinetics, p. 394-9
Baker, D., Wilson, G., Carlyon, R. (1994) Periodization: The effect on strength of manipulating volume and intensity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 8(4): 235-242
Bartolomei, S., Hoffman, J.R., Merni, F., Stout, J.R. (2014) A comparison of traditional and block periodized strength training programs in trained athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(4): 990-997
Bompa, T.O. (2009) Periodizacija: teorija i metodologija treninga / Periodization: Training theory and methodology. Zagreb: Gopal, In Croatian
Bompa, T.O., Buzzichelli, C. (2018) Periodization: Theory and methodology of training. Human Kinetics
Bompa, T.O., Haff, G.G. (2009) Periodization: Theory and methodology of training. Human Kinetics
Buford, T.W., Rossi, S.J., Smith, D.B., Warren, A.J. (2007) A comparison of periodization models during nine weeks with equated volume and intensity for strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(4): 1245-1250
Caldas, L.C., Guimarães-Ferreira, L., Duncan, M.J., Leopoldo, A.S., Leopoldo, A.P.L., Lunz, W. (2016) Traditional vs. undulating periodization in the context of muscular strength and hypertrophy: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Sports Science, 6: 219-229
Clemente-Suárez, V.J., Fernandes, R.J., Arroyo-Toledo, J.J., Figueiredo, P., González-Ravé, J.M., Vilas-Boas, J.P. (2015) Autonomic adaptation after traditional and reverse swimming training periodizations. Acta Physiologica Hungarica, 102(1): 105-113
da Silva, F.P., Vilaça-Alves, J., de Souza, L.L., dos Santos, J.S., Figueiredo, T. (2016) Effects of daily and flexible non-linear periodization on maximal and submaximal strength, vertical jump and speed performance of Brazilian army skydivers. International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine, 2, 047
Deweese, B.H., Gray, H.S., Sams, M.L., Scruggs, S.K., Serrano, A.J. (2013) Revising the definition of periodization: Merging historical principles with modern concern. Olympic Coach, 24(1): 5-19
Fleck, S.J. (1999) Periodized strength training: A critical review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 13(1): 82-89
Franchini, E., Branco, B.M., Agostinho, M.F., Calmet, M., Candau, R. (2015) Influence of linear and undulating strength periodization on physical fitness, physiological, and performance responses to simulated judo matches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(2): 358-367
Grgic, J., Lazinica, B., Mikulic, P., Schoenfeld, B.J. (2018) Should resistance training programs aimed at muscular hypertrophy be periodized?: A systematic review of periodized versus non-periodized approaches. Science & Sports, 33(3): e97-e104
Grgic, J., Mikulic, P., Podnar, H., Pedisic, Z. (2017) Effects of linear and daily undulating periodized resistance training programs on measures of muscle hypertrophy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PeerJ, 5: e3695-e3695
Haff, G.G., Triplett, N.T. (2015) Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Human Kinetics
Harries, S.K., Lubans, D.R., Callister, R. (2015) Systematic review and meta-analysis of linear and undulating periodized resistance training programs on muscular strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(4): 1113-1125
Herrick, A.B., Stone, W.J. (1996) The effects of periodization versus progressive resistance exercise on upper and lower body strength in women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 10(2): 72-76
Hoffman, J.R., Ratamess, N.A., Klatt, M., Faigenbaum, A.D., Ross, R.E., Tranchina, N.M., Mccurley, R.C., Kang, J., Kraemer, W.J. (2009) Comparison between different off-season resistance training programs in division III American college football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(1): 11-19
Hoffman, J.R., Wendell, M., Cooper, J., Kang, J. (2003) Comparison between linear and nonlinear in-season training programs in freshman football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(3): 561-565
Issurin, V.B. (2009) Blok periodizacija - prekretnica u sportskom treningu (Block periodization: The turning point in sports training). Beograd: Data status, In Serbian
Junior, A.C.T., Drigo, A.J. (2017) Application of training periodization models by elite judo coaches. Archives of Budo, 13(1): 139-146
Kraemer, W.J., Ratamess, N.A. (2004) Fundamentals of resistance training: Progression and exercise prescription. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36(4): 674-688
Kraemer, W.J., Häkkinen, K., Triplett-Mcbride, N. T., Fry, A.C., Koziris, L. P., Ratamess, N.A., Bauer, J.E., Volek, J.S., Mcconnell, T., Newton, R.U., Gordon, S.E., Cummings, D., Hauth, J., Pullo, F. (2003) Physiological changes with periodized resistance training in women tennis players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35(1): 157-168
Kramer, J.B., Stone, M.H., O'Bryant, H.S., Conley, M.S., Johnson, R.L., Nieman, D.C., Hoke, T.P., i dr. (1997) Effects of single vs. multiple sets of weight training: Impact of volume, intensity, and variation. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 11: 143-147
Manchado, C., Cortell-Tormo, J.M., Tortosa-Martínez, J. (2018) Effects of two different training periodization models on physical and physiological aspects of elite female team handball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(1): 280-287
Mattocks, K.T., Dankel, S.J., Buckner, S.L., Jessee, M.B., Counts, B.R., Mouser, J. G., Laurentino, G.C., Loenneke, J.P. (2016) Periodization: What is it good for?. Journal of Trainology, 5(1): 6-12
Miranda, F., Simão, R., Rhea, M., Bunker, D., Prestes, J., Leite, R.D., Miranda, H., de Salles, B.F., Novaes, J. (2011) Effects of linear vs. daily undulatory periodized resistance training on maximal and submaximal strength gains. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(7): 1824-1830
Monteiro, A.G., Aoki, M.S., Evangelista, A.L., Alveno, D.A., Monteiro, G.A., da Cruz, P.I., Ugrinowitsch, C. (2009) Nonlinear periodization maximizes strength gains in split resistance training routines. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(4): 1321-1326
Moraes, E., Fleck, S.J., Dias, M.R., Simão, R. (2013) Effects on strength, power, and flexibility in adolescents of nonperiodized vs. daily nonlinear periodized weight training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(12): 3310-3321
Nunes, J.P., Ribeiro, A.S., Schoenfeld, B.J., Cyrino, E.S. (2018) Comment on: 'Comparison of periodized and non-periodized resistance training on maximal strength: A meta-analysis'. Sports Medicine, 48(2): 491-494
O'Bryant, H.S., Byrd, R., Stone, M.H. (1988) Cycle ergometer performance and maximum leg and hip strength adaptations to two different methods of weight-training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2(2): 27-30
Painter, K.B., Haff, G.G., Ramsey, M.W., Mcbride, J., Triplett, T., Sands, W.A., Lamont, H.S., Stone, M.E., Stone, M.H. (2012) Strength gains: Block versus daily undulating periodization weight training among track and field athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 7(2): 161-169
Rhea, M.R., Alderman, B.L. (2004) A meta-analysis of periodized versus nonperiodized strength and power training programs. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75(4): 413-422
Souza, E.O., Ugrinowitsch, C., Tricoli, V., Roschel, H., Lowery, R.P., Aihara, A.Y., Wilson, J.M., i dr. (2014) Early adaptations to six weeks of non-periodized and periodized strength training regimens in recreational males. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 13(3): 604-609
Stone, M.H., Potteiger, J.A., Pierce, K.C., Proulx, C.M., O'Bryant, H.S., Johnson, R.L., Stone, M.E. (2000) Comparison of the effects of three different weight-training programs on the one repetition maximum squat. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14(3): 332-337
Storer, T.W., Dolezal, B.A., Berenc, M.N., Timmins, J.E., Cooper, C.B. (2014) Effect of supervised, periodized exercise training vs. self-directed training on lean body mass and other fitness variables in health club members. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(7): 1995-2006
Strohacker, K., Fazzino, D., Breslin, W.L., Xu, X. (2015) The use of periodization in exercise prescriptions for inactive adults: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2: 385-396
Tammam, A.H., Hashem, E.M. (2016) The effect of linear and biweekly non-linear periodized resistance training on maximal strength and vertical jump for volleyball players. Journal of Applied Sports Science, 6(1): 73-81
Ullrich, B., Pelzer, T., Pfeiffer, M. (2018) Neuromuscular effects to 6 weeks of loaded countermovement jumping with traditional and daily undulating periodization. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 32(3): 660-674
Ullrich, B., Pelzer, T., Oliveira, S., Pfeiffer, M. (2016) Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(8): 2083-2099
Williams, T.D., Tolusso, D.V., Fedewa, M.V., Esco, M.R. (2017) Comparison of periodized and non-periodized resistance training on maximal strength: A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 47(10): 2083-2100


article language: Serbian, English
document type: Review Paper
DOI: 10.5937/fizkul1902174C
published in SCIndeks: 24/02/2020
peer review method: double-blind
Creative Commons License 4.0

Related records