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2019, vol. 73, br. 2, str. 174-189
Modeli periodizacije u istraživanjima jačine mišića kod sportista, teorijsko-metodološke redukcije ili nekritički pozitivizam u sportsko-naučnoj periodici
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja

e-adresamarko.cosic@fsfv.bg.ac.rs
Ključne reči: periodizacija; mišićna jačina; saznajna paradigma; metodološka redukcija; naučna periodika
Sažetak
Periodizacija je teorijski i praktični konstrukt sportskog treninga koji se odnosi na programiranje trenažnih aktivnosti u međusobno zavisnim vremenskim periodima, kako bi se izazvale specifične fiziološke adaptacije. U trenažnom i takmičarskom procesu koristi se u funkciji postizanja rezultata na ciljanom takmičenju. Teorijsko i praktično utemeljenje procesa periodizacije se između ostalog može proučavati i sa aspekta njenog uticaja na biomotoričke sposobnosti. U tom kontekstu, opšte mesto izučavanja periodizacije su istraživanja koja se tiču uticaja različitih modela periodizacije na jačinu mišića (predmet ovog rada). Na osnovu analize sadržaja, smisla, metodološke orijentacije i zaključivanja unutar odabranog broja publikovanih istraživanja (metod saznanja), ne može se sa sigurnošću tvrditi da li periodizovani modeli treninga u prostoru mišićne jačine daju bolje rezultate od neperiodizovanog modela, kao ni to, koji model od periodizovanih modela u tom smislu daje bolje rezultate. Navedene dileme iz predmeta ovog rada su potvrđene i u nekoliko preglednih radova i meta-analiza. Ipak, pregledom metodološkog i teorijskog konteksta tih studija, uočava se veći broj dilema, pre svega ona koja se odnosi na uzorak ispitanika. Naime, ni jedna od analiziranih studija u svom fokusu nije imala samo sportiste kao ciljnu grupu, već su rezultati istraživanja sprovedenih nad sportistima analizirani u odnosu na grupu rekreativnih vežbača ili u odnosu na netrenirane ispitanike. Takođe, uočava se nedoslednost u terminologiji primenjivanih modela periodizacije, čime se otvara pitanje postojanja jasnog teorijskog koncepta i metodičko-organizacionog konstrukta kojim se planira postizanje takmičarskog rezultata. Pretpostavka je da bi se jasnom analizom izvornog konteksta fenomena periodizacije, usklađivanjem metodičkih i metodoloških koraka u procesu saznanja, jasnom distinkcijom prema postojećim definicijama i terminologiji, došlo i do optimizacije procesa saznanja koje će dovesti do prepoznavanja modela periodizacije koji će voditi do optimalnih ciljeva trenažno-takmičarske pripreme. Dakle, problem ovog istraživanja je proistekao iz teorijske i metodološke nekonzistentnosti istraživača u prostoru uticaj različitih modela periodizacije na jačinu sportista. Cilj rada je da se analizom i utvrđivanjem činjenica metodološkog i teorijskog konstrukta periodizacije razumeju zaključci različitih istraživanja, za koje se može reći da - i pored publikovanja u značajnim međunarodnim časopisima - vode do konfuzije u prostoru zaključivanja o uticaju različitih modela periodizacije na jačinu kod sportista. Nakon pregleda više od 80 radova publikovanih u referentnim časopisima, selekcijom u odnosu na teorijsko-metodološki i kontekst deduktivnog zaključivanja, ovom analizom je izdvojeno 10 istraživanja u kojima je upoređen uticaj primene različitih modela periodizacije na jačinu kod sportista ispoljenu pri vežbama rukama i nogama. Rezultati upućuju da su primenjeni periodizovani modeli, pre svega blok, pokazali viši stepen senzitivnosti na razvoj jačine kod sportista, ali je otvoreno i nekoliko važnih pitanja koja se tiču upravo valjanosti zaključivanja o ovoj temi. Kako God, ishod i svrsishodnost ovog istraživanja, treba sagledati kao jasnije definisanje fenomena periodizacije i njenih modela, kao i prepoznati delovanja eksperimentalnog faktora u funkciji biomotoričkog odgovora ispitanika na trenažne stimuluse.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5937/fizkul1902174C
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 24.02.2020.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
Creative Commons License 4.0