Journal of Regional Security
kako citirati ovaj članak
podeli ovaj članak


  • citati u SCIndeksu: 0
  • citati u CrossRef-u:0
  • citati u Google Scholaru:[]
  • posete u poslednjih 30 dana:67
  • preuzimanja u poslednjih 30 dana:5


članak: 2 od 8  
Back povratak na rezultate
2020, vol. 15, br. 1, str. 39-74
Criminalization as anxious and ineffective response to foreign fighters phenomenon in the Western Balkans
(naslov ne postoji na srpskom)
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju

(ne postoji na srpskom)
Despite not being a new phenomenon, nor an Islamic specificum, only recently when the West has increasingly become a potential target of returning foreign fighters from the Syrian theater has the international community reacted. The UN Security Council called on Member-states to, inter alia, immediately amend their national legislation to criminalize travelling abroad for terrorist purposes. However, as I identify in this article, contrary to majority of the Western countries, the Western Balkan countries opted to amend their legislation to criminalize travelling abroad to join conflict irrespective of its connection with terrorism, going well beyond the intended aim of the Security Council's resolutions. I argue that this broader criminal law approach is difficult to justify from either preventive or reactive perspectives. It is, in fact, an anxious and ineffective response to foreign fighters phenomenon. It is anxious because existing data shows that countries from the region have suffered fewer extremist attacks than the West. Notwithstanding, they still decided to introduce far more aggressive legislative changes, even though it only amplified securitizing moves performed by fighters' recruiters. I further demonstrate that the implementation of this new legislation has been ineffective particularly due to: (1) the challenge of securing court-strong evidence, especially those gathered through international intelligence cooperation; (2) its application mainly as an alternative when other terrorism-related offences cannot be proved; and (3) biased law application in countries that have returning fighters from both Middle East and Ukraine.
*** (2017) Judgement of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. No. S 1 2 K 021198 17 Kžk of 22 November 2017
*** (2011-2018) Croatia Criminal Code. Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia, Nos. 125/2011, 144/2012, 56/2015, 61/2015, 101/2017, 118/2018
*** (2018) Croatia Final Draft Law on Amendments to the Criminal Code. Accessed September 6, 2019. https://vlada.gov.hr/UserDocsImages//2016/Sjednice/2018/12%20prosinac/129%20sjednica%20VRH//129%20-%204.pdf
*** (1995-2017) Albania Criminal Code. Law No. 7895/1995, amended by Law No. 36/2017 and 89/2017
*** (2015) Kosovo: Law on Prohibition of Joining the Armed Conflicts outside State Territory. No. 05/L-002
*** (2019) North Macedonia jails 7 IS fighters captured in Syria. Associated Press, March 21. Accessed October 10, 2019. https://www.apnews.com/fa8d555236ae-4470977ebd555e01dcb2
*** (2014) Bosnia and Herzegovina: Amendments to the Criminal Code. Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, No. 47
*** (2018) Now that the Islamic State has fallen in Iraq and Syria, where are all its fighters going. Washington Post, February 22
*** (2003-2018) Montenegro Criminal Code. Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro, Nos. 70/2003, 13/2004 -corr. and 47/2006, and 'Official Gazette of Montenegro', Nos. 40/2008, 25/2010, 32/2011, 64/2011 -other law, 40/2013, 56/2013 -corr., 14/2015, 42/2015, 58/2015 -other law, 44/20
*** (2019) Džihadistima iz Sirije lisice na ruke čim kroče u BiH. Nezavisne, March 14. Accessed September 22, 2019. https://www.nezavisne.com/novosti/bih/Dzihadistima-iz-Sirije-lisice-na-ruke-cim-kroce-u-BiH/527539
*** (1996-2018) North Macedonia Criminal Code. Oficial Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia, Consolidated Text, Nos. 37/1996, 80/1999, 4/2002, 43/2003, 19/2004, 81/2005, 60/2006, 73/2006, 7/2008, 139/2008, 114/2009, 51/2011, 135/2011, 185/2011, 142/2012, 166/2012, 55/2013, 82/2013, 14/2014, 2
*** (2019) Podignuta optužnica protiv Srbina iz BiH zbog Ukrajine. Politika, 26 March, Accessed September 22, 2019. http://www.politika.rs/sr/clanak/425917/Podignutaoptuznica-protiv-Srbina-iz-BiH-zbog-Ukrajine
*** (2019) Džihadiste iz Sirije prebacuju u zatvore u BiH. Politika, October 8. Accessed October 9, 2019. http://www.politika.rs/sr/clanak/439407/Dzihadiste-iz-Sirijeprebacuju-u-zatvore-u-BiH
*** (2019) US Secretary of State thanked Bosnia-Herzegovina after Return of 25 ISIL Fighters. Sarajevo Times, December 22, Accessed January 28, 2020. https://www.sarajevotimes.com/us-secretary-of-state-thanked-bosnia-herzegovina-after-returnof-25-isil-fighters
*** (2018) Macedonia takes back 7 Isis prisoners from Syria. Times, August 8. Accessed October 9, 2019. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/macedonia-takes-back-7-isis-prisoners-from-syria-wk60rqrmf
*** (2003-2018) Bosnia and Herzegovina Criminal Code. Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Nos. 2003, 32/2003 -corr., 37/2003, 54/2004, 61/2004, 30/2005, 53/2006, 55/2006, 8/2010, 47/2014, 22/2015, 40/2015 and 35/2018
*** (2014) U Ukrajini puca Srbin na Srbina. Novosti, August 15, Accessed June 10, 2019. http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/naslovna/drustvo/aktuelno.290.html:505591-U-Ukrajinipuca-Srbin-na-Srbina
*** (2005-2019) Serbia Criminal Code. Official Gazette of RS, Nos. 85/2005, 88/2005 -corr., 107/2005 -corr., 72/2009, 111/2009, 121/2012, 104/2013, 108/2014, 94/2016 and 35/2019
*** (2014) Serbia Amendments to the Criminal Code. Official Gazette of RS, No. 108
*** Serbia National Strategy for the Prevention and Countering of Terrorism for 2017-2021. Accessed September 22, 2019. https://rm.coe.int/serbian-national-strategy-forthe-prevention-and-countering-of-terrori/168088ae0b
*** (2015) Judgement of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. No. S1 2 K 017968 15 K of 05 November 2015
*** (2016) Judgement of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. No. S 1 2 K 018991 15 K of 31 October 2016
*** (2016) Judgement of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. No. S1 2 K 022112 16 Ko of 16 August 2016
*** (2018) Croatia Amendments to the Criminal Code. Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia, No. 118
Arielli, N. (2018) From Byron to bin Laden: A History of Foreign War Volunteers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Arnett, J.J. (2002) The psychology of globalization. American Psychologist, 57(10): 774-783
Bojović, A. (2016) Džihadisti se od zakona štite potvrdama o školovanju. Politika, November 27, Accessed June 10, 2019. http://www.politika.rs/sr/clanak/368805/Dzihadisti-se-od-zakona-stite-potvrdama-o-skolovanju
Buzan, B., Waever, O., de Wilde, J. (1998) Security: A new framework for analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner
Bytyci, F. (2019) Kosovo brings back fghters, families of jihadists from Syria. Reuters, April 20. Accessed September 6, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/uskosovo-syria/kosovo-brings-back-fighters-families-of-jihadists-from-syria-idUSKCN1RW003
Cesari, J. (2012) Securitization of Islam in Europe. Die Welt des Islams, 52(3-4): 430-449
Colborne, M. (2019) Croatia Key to Ukrainian Far-Right's International Ambition. Balkan Insight, July 18. Accessed October 9, 2019. https://balkaninsight.com/2019/07/18/croatia-key-to-ukrainian-far-rights-international-ambitions
Commission of Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in Relation to Maher Arar (2006) Report of the Events Relating to Maher Arar: Analysis and Recommendations. Ottawa: Privy Council
Council of The European Union-EU Counter-Terrorism Coordinator (2014) Foreign Fighters and Returnees. 15715/14. November 24. Accessed June 10, 2019. http://statewatch.org/news/2014/nov/eu-council-foreign-fighters-discussionpaper15715-14.pdf
Cragin, K. (2017) The Challenge of Foreign Fighter Returnees. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 33(3): 292-312
Cullen, M., Reddy, D.P. (2016) Intelligence and Security in a Free Society: Report of the First Independent Review of Intelligence and Security in New Zealand
de Taillon, P.J.B. (2002) Hijacking and hostages: Government responses to terrorism. Westport: Praeger Publishers
European Parliamentary Research Service (2018) The Return of Foreign Fighters to EU Soil: Ex-Post Evaluation
European Union (2017) Directive (EU) 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2017 on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and amending Council Decision 2005/671/JHA
Europol (2016) European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 2016
Federal Chancellor (2019) German passport can be revoked. April 3. Accessed January 28, 2020. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-en/chancellor/german-passport-can-be-revoked-1597456
Gardner, F. (2013) Europe Could Feel the Backlash from Jihadist Conflicts. BBC, November 30. Accessed June 10, 2019. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middleeast-25155188. Journal of Regional Security Vol. 15 № 1 2020
Glušac, L. (2018) International Intelligence Sharing: Key Preconditions for an Effective Oversight. u: Stanarević Svetlana, Mandić Goran J.,Katić Ljubinka [ur.] The International Academic Conference on Human Security (4th), Proceedings of, Belgrade: University of Belgrade-Faculty of Security Studies, 83-88
Glušac, L. (2015) Foreign (Terrorist) Fighters. u: The OSCE and Contemporary Security Challenges, Belgrade: OSCE Mission to Serbia, 33-48
Hegghammer, T. (2013) Should I Stay or Should I Go? Explaining Variation in Western Jihadists' Choice between Domestic and Foreign Fighting. American Political Science Review, 107(1): 1-15
Hegghammer, T. (2010) The Rise of Muslim Foreign Fighters: Islam and the Globalization of Jihad. International Security, 35(3): 53-94
Helfont, T. (2001) The Foreign Fighters Problem, Recent Trends and Case Studies. u: Noonan Michael P. [ur.] The Foreign Fighters Problem, Recent Trends and Case Studies: Selected Essays, Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute
Holman, T. (2016) Gonna Get Myself Connected: The Role of Facilitation in Foreign Fighter Mobilizations. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(2): 1-23
Holmer, G., Shtuni, A. (2017) Returning Foreign Fighters and the Reintegration Imperative. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, Special Report 402. Accessed September 22, 2019. https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/2017-03/sr402-returning-foreign-fighters-and-the-reintegration-imperative.pdf
Jimeno-Bulnes, M. (2017) The Use of Intelligence Information in Criminal Procedure: A Challenge to Defence Rights in the European and the Spanish Panorama. New Journal of European Criminal Law, 8(2): 171-191
Kinnvall, C., Nesbitt-Larking, P. (2010) The Political Psychology of (de)Securitization: Place-Making Strategies in Denmark, Sweden, and Canada. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 28(6): 1051-1070
Kinnvall, C., Nesbitt-Larking, P. (2009) Security, subjectivity and space in postcolonial Europe: Muslims in the diaspora. European Security, 18(3): 305-325
Kinnvall, C. (2004) Globalization and Religious Nationalism: Self, Identity, and the Search for Ontological Security. Political Psychology, 25(5): 741-767
Komšić, Z. (2019) Nakon godina provedenih na ratištu u Siriji prijeti im zatvor u BiH. N1, December 24, Accessed January 28, 2020. http://ba.n1info.com/Vijesti/a399884/Nakon-godina-provedenih-na-ratistu-u-Siriji-prijeti-im-zatvor-u-BiH.html
Kursani, S. (2018) Western Balkans Extremism Research Forum: Serbia Report. London: British Council
Mackinlay, J. (2002) Globalization and Insurgency. Adelphi Papers, No. 352
Macmillan, M. (2018) The UN Foreign (Terrorist) Fighter Regime and International Criminal Law. Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting, 112: 310-314
Malet, D., Hayes, R. (2018) Foreign Fighter Returnees: An Indefinite Threat?. Terrorism and Political Violence, 1-19
Malet, D. (2010) Why Foreign Fighters? Historical Perspectives and Solutions. Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs, 54(1): 97-114
Malet, D. (2013) Foreign Fighters: Transnational Identity in Civil Conflicts. New York: Oxford University Press, 15: 2020-2020
Malet, D. (2008) Foreign Fighters: Transnational Identity in Civil Conflicts. George Washington University, Ph. diss
Mavelli, L. (2013) Between Normalisation and Exception: The Securitisation of Islam and the Construction of the Secular Subject. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 41(2): 159-181
Mehra, T. (2016) Foreign Terrorist Fighters: Trends, Dynamics and Policy Responses. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, ICCT Report, Accessed September 22, 2019. https://icct.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/ICCTMehra-FTF-Dec2016-2.pdf
Mendelsohn, B. (2011) Foreign Fighters-Recent Trends. Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs, 55(2): 189-202
Milekic, S. (2015) Some Croats Fighting in Ukraine Army, Pusic says. Balkan Insight, February 12. Accessed September 22, 2019. https://balkaninsight.com/2015/02/12/croatia-not-prosecuting-fighters-in-foreign-wars
Ministry of Security (2017) Informacija o stanju sigurnosti u Bosni i Hercegovini u 2016. godini. Accessed September 6, 2019. http://msb.gov.ba/PDF/info2017.pdf
Ministry of Security (2019) Informacija o stanju sigurnosti u Bosni i Hercegovini u 2017. godini. Accessed September 6, 2019. http://msb.gov.ba/PDF/050720196.pdf
Moreng, B. (2016) ISIS' Virtual Puppeteers: How they recruit and train 'Lone wolves'. Foreign Affairs, September 21
ODIHR (2018) Guidelines for Addressing the Threats and Challenges of Foreign Terrorist Fighters. Vienna: OSCE
Petrović, P., Stakić, I. (2018) Western Balkans Extremism Research Forum: Serbia Report. London: British Council
Plesch, V., Haxhiaj, S. (2019) Kosovo is trying to reintegrate ISIL returnees: Will it work?. Aljazeera, Jun 9, Accessed September 22, 2019. https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/kosovo-reintegrate-isil-returneeswork-190608200858002.html
Radio Slobodna Evropa (2015) Nacrt zakona o zabrani učešća na stranim ratištima usvojen u načelu. 23 Januar. Accessed September 05, 2019. https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/nacrt-zakona-o-zabrani-ucesca-na-stranim-ratistima-usvojenu-nacelu/26809901.html
Reed, A., Pohl, J., Jegerings, M. (2017) The Four Dimensions of the Foreign Fighter Threat: Making Sense of an Evolving Phenomenon. International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT, ccessed June 10, 2019. https://icct.nl/wpcontent/uploads/2017/06/ICCT-Reed-Pohl-The-Four-Dimensions-of-the-Foreign-Fighters-Threat-June-2017.pdf
Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) (2017) A Waiting Game: Assessing and Responding to the Threat from Returning Foreign Fighters in the Western Balkans. Sarajevo
Reuters (2016) Albanian court jails nine for recruiting fighters for Syria. May 3. Accessed October 05, 2019. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-albania/albanian-court-jails-nine-for-recruiting-fighters-for-syria-idUSKCN0XU2AB
Ristić, M. (2017) Facebook Reveals Serbian Fighters' Role in Ukraine War. Balkan Insight, https://balka-ninsight.com/2017/12/27/facebook-reveals-serbian-fighters-role-in-ukraine-war-12-25-2017
Roach, K. (2012) Overseeing Information Sharing. u: Born Hans, Aidan Wills [ur.] Overseeing Intelligence Services: A Toolkit, Geneva: DCAF, 129-150
Salehyan, I. (2009) Rebels without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
See, S. (2018) Returning Foreign Terrorist Fighters: A Catalyst for Recidivism Among Disengaged Terrorists. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 10(6): 7-15
Soufan Group (2015) Foreign Fighters: An Updated Assessment of the Flow of Foreign Fighters into Syria and Iraq
Speckhard, A., Shajkovci, A. (2019) Who Are the ISIS Fighters in Custody, and How Can They Be Repatriated?. HSToday, October 7, Accessed January 28, 2020. https://www.hstoday.us/subject-matter-areas/counterterrorism/who-are-theisis-fighters-in-custody-and-how-can-they-be-repatriated
Speckhard, A., Shajkovci, A. (2018) The Balkan Jihad: Recruitment to Violent Extremism and Issues Facing Returning Foreign Fighters in Kosovo and Southern Serbia. Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 101(2): 79-109
Speckhard, A., Shajkovci, A. (2017) Drivers of Radicalization and Violent Extremism in Kosovo: Women's Roles in Supporting, Preventing & Fighting Violent Extremism. Washington: International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism
Šikman, M. (2018) Return of the Foreign Terrorist Fighters: Criminal Persecution and Deradicalization. u: Čaleta Denis, Robinson Corinna A. [ur.] Violent Extremism and Radicalization Processes as Driving Factors to Terrorism Threats, Ljubljana: Ministry of Defense of Slovenia, 109-136
Taureck, R. (2006) Securitization theory and securitization studies. Journal of International Relations and Development, 9(1): 53-61
The Government-Bureau For Operational Coordination (2019) Provisional Action Plan for 2019 for Implementation of the Action Plan for Implementation of the Countering Violent Extremism Strategy 2016-2018. Podgorica, January, Accessed September 22, 2019. http://www.gov.me/ResourceManager/FileDownload.aspx?rId=346918&rType=2
Thomas, H., Nesser, P. (2015) Assessing the Islamic State's Commitment to Attacking the West. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9 (4): 14-30
U S. Embassy in Pristina (2019) Statement from U.S. Embassy Pristina. April 20. Accessed September 22, 2019. https://xk.usembassy.gov/statement-from-u-s-embassy-pristina-6
UN Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate Uncted (2018) The Challenge of Returning and Relocating Foreign Terrorist Fighters: Research Perspectives. March
UN Cted (2020) Guidelines to Facilitate the Use and Admissibility as Evidence in National Criminal Courts of Information Collected, Handled, Preserved and Shared by the Military to Prosecute Terrorist Offences ('Military Evidence'). Accessed January 28, 2020. https://www.un.org/sc/ctc/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Battlefield_Evidence_Final.pdf
UN Human Rights Council (2010) Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism. A/HRC/16/51
UN Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC (2018) Introductory Handbook on the Prevention of Recidivism and the Social Reintegration of Offenders. Vienna
UN Security Council (2014) Resolution 2170. S/RES/2170
UN Security Council (2014) Resolution 2178. S/RES/2178
UN Security Council (2017) Resolution 2396. S/RES/2396
United Nations (2017) Greater Cooperation Needed to Tackle Danger Posed by Returning Foreign Fighters, Head of Counter-Terrorism Office Tells Security Council. November 19
van Ginkel, B., Eva, E., Eds (2016) The Foreign Fighters Phenomenon in the European Union: Profiles, Threats & Policies. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism
van Waas, L. (2016) Foreign Fighters and the Deprivation of Nationality: National Practices and International Law Implications. u: de Guttry Andrea, Capone Francesca, Paulussen Christophe [ur.] Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond, The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 469-487
Veldhuis, T. (2012) Designing Rehabilitation and Reintegration Programmes for Violent Extremist Offenders: A Realist Approach. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, Accessed June 10, 2019. https://www.icct.nl/download/file/ICCT-Veldhuis-Designing-Rehabilitation-Reintegration-Programmes-March-2012.pdf
Vidino, L., et al. (2014) Foreign Fighters: An Overview of Responses in Eleven Countries. Zurich: ETH Zurich-Center for Security Studies (CSS), CSS Study
Waever, O. (2004) Aberystwyth, Paris, Copenhagen: New schools in security theory and the origins between core and periphery. u: The annual meeting of the international studies association conference, Montreal, Paper presented at
Walsh, J. (2007) Defection and Hierarchy in International Intelligence Sharing. Journal of Public Policy, 27 (2): 151-181
Williams, K.B. (2019) Trump Threatens to 'Release' ISIS Fighters into France, Germany. Defense One, August 21. Accessed January 28, 2020. https://www.defenseone.com/politics/2019/08/trump-threatens-release-isis-fighters-france-germany/159361
Xharra, B., Gojani, N. (2017) Understanding Push and Pull Factors in Kosovo: Primary Interviews with Returned Foreign Fighters and their Families. Pristina: UNDP
Živanović, M. (2018) Donbass Brothers: How Serbian Fighters Were Deployed in Ukraine. Balkan Insight, December 13. Accessed June 10, 2019. https://balkaninsight.com/2018/12/13/donbass-brothers-how-serbian-fighters-were-deployed-inukraine-12-12-2018
Živanović, M. (2018) Serbian Court Jails Seven for Helping Jihadists. Balkan Insight, April 4. Accessed June 10, 2019. https://balkaninsight.com/2018/04/04/serbian-court-sentenced-seven-for-cooperation-with-isis-04-04-2018

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/jrs15-24025
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 02.07.2020.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman