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2021, vol. 12, br. 1, str. 123-145
Ograničena vlast za vreme vanrednog stanja - kratki osvrt na odgovor država jugoistočne Evrope na pandemiju kovid-19 virusa
Central European University PU, Legal Studies Department, Vienna, Austria / Budapest, Hungary

e-adresaMiljojkovic_Teodora@phd.ceu.edu
Sažetak
Oslanjajući se na teorijsku podelu na Medisonov i Šmitov model vlasti za vreme vanrednog stanja, ovaj rad istražuje do koje mere su ustavni sudovi dve zemlje jugoistočne Evrope (Srbija i Hrvatska) efikasno ograni-čile izvršnu vlast pri uvođenju mera radi suzbijanja pandemije kovida 19. Posebna pažnja rada posvećena je pitanju na koji način su ustavni sudovi doktrinarno odgovorili na pitanje da li je pandemija kovida 19 osnov za proglašenje vanrednog stanja. Dileme sa kojima su se ustavne sudije susrele u svojim odlukama oslikavaju neka od gorućih pitanja teorije o ustavnom režimu vanrednog stanja: (1) Da li je izvršna vlast de facto šmitovski suveren koji odlučuje o izuzetku, čak i kada ustav propisuje suprot-no? (2) Da li sudovi, u skladu sa istorijski ustaljenom praksom, treba da pokažu posebnu naklonost prema drugim granama vlasti pri suzbijanju kriza kao što je pandemija kovida 19? (3) Da li su sudovi u mogućnosti da procene faktičko prisustvo ustavom predviđenih uslova za proglašenje vanrednog stanja, to jest da vrše kako formalnu tako i supstantivnu kontrolu ustavnosti proglašenja vanrednog stanja? U radu se zaključuje da su Srbija i Hrvatska, propuštanjem da ustanove jasnu doktrinu vanrednog stanja, neuspešno ograničile druge grane vlasti pri odgovoru na pandemiju kovida 19. Ustavni sud Srbije je u svojoj odluci potvrdio neošmitovski model, koji pretpostavlja da je u vreme krize opravdana koncentracija vlasti u izvršnim organima. S druge strane, Ustavni sud Hrvatske mogao je da učini više u afirmaciji Medisonovog modela, koji pretpostavlja sistem teže i protivteže, kao i uzajamnu saradnju među svim granama vlasti.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5937/pravzap0-29534
primljen: 23.11.2020.
prihvaćen: 11.06.2021.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 23.07.2021.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman
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