• citations in SCIndeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[]
  • visits in previous 30 days:20
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:6


article: 4 from 9  
Back back to result list
2020, vol. 74, iss. 2, pp. 140-151
Predictors of physical activity in early adolescence: The contribution of physical fitness and physical self-concept
aUniversity of Belgrade, Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, Serbia
bUniversity of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy, Serbia
Effects of the Applied Physical Activity to Locomotor, Metabolic, Psycho-Social and Educational Status of the Population of the Republic of Serbia (MESTD - 47015)
Identification, measurement and development of the cognitive and emotional competences important for a Europe-oriented society (MESTD - 179018)
Improving the quality and accessibility of education in modernization processes in Serbia (MESTD - 47008)

Keywords: motor abilities; physical self-perception; body mass index; gender; adolescence
Vast empirical evidence suggests a high significance of physical activity (PA) for health and well-being. Still, researches show a decline of PA in youth worldwide. Early adolescence is a particularly sensitive period because then children adopt healthy habits and build a positive attitude towards PA. Examining the significance and contribution of potential factors to overall PA in early adolescence is of theoretical and practical relevance. Thus, this study aimed to explore the validity of physical fitness and physical self-concept in the prediction of overall PA in early adolescence, taking into account gender and Body Mass Index (BMI). The sample consisted of 417 primary school students (54.9% boys), the average age 13.6 years (SD=0.73) who participate in regular physical education classes three times per week, each class 45 minutes. Physical self-concept was measured using the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). To assess everyday physical activity, we used the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Anthropometric measurements included the body height and bodyweight of the respondents. Physical fitness, i.e., flexibility, muscular strength (abdominal endurance strength and lower-limb explosive strength), and cardiorespiratory endurance were measured using the EUROFIT test battery. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that physical self-concept predicts 35% of the variance of PA over and above gender and dimensions of physical fitness. Significant predictors of physical activity were dimensions of physical self-concept: Physical Activity, Sports Competence, and Endurance. The interaction of Gender and Self Esteem contributed significantly indicating that higher Self Esteem had a significant role in the level of PA only in male adolescents. The main finding is that physical self-concept plays a crucial role in the prediction of the level of overall PA in which early adolescents will be engaged. The results support findings showing that intervention programs aimed to improve PA should encourage positive physical self-concept of adolescents with appropriate content and procedures.
Aaron, D.J., Storti, K.L., Robertson, R.J., Kriska, A.M., Laporte, R.E. (2002) Longitudinal study of the number and choice of leisure time physical activities from mid to late adolescence: Implications for school curricula and community recreation programs. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(11), 1075-1080
Aggio, D., Fairclough, S., Knowles, Z., Graves, L. (2016) Validity and reliability of a modified English version of the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents. Archives of Public Health, 74(1), 3-9
Armstrong, R.A. (2014) When to use the Bonferroni correction. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 34(5), 502-508
Babic, M.J., Morgan, P.J., Plotnikoff, R.C., Lonsdale, C., White, R.L., Lubans, D.R. (2014) Physical activity and physical Self-Concept in youth: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(11), 1589-1601
Balsalobre, F.J.B., Sánchez, G.F.L., Suárez, A.D. (2014) Relationships between physical fitness and physical Self-Concept in Spanish adolescents. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 132(5), 343-350
Biddle, S.J., Mutrie, N. (2007) Psychology of physical activity: Determinants, well-being and interventions. London: Routledge
Çaglar, E. (2009) Similarities and differences in physical Self-Concept of males and females during late adolescence and early adulthood. Adolescence, 44(174), 407-420
Carraro, A., Scarpa, S., Ventura, L. (2010) Relationships between physical Self-Concept and physical fitness in Italian adolescents. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110(2), 522-530
Caspersen, C.J., Powell, K.E., Christenson, G.M. (1985) Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100(2), 126-131
Castelli, D.M., Valley, J.A. (2007) Chapter 3: The relationship of physical fitness and motor competence to physical activity. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 26(4), 358-374
Collings, P.J., Wijndaele, K., Corder, K., Westgate, K., Ridgway, C.L., Dunn, V., Goodyer, I., Ekelund, U., Brage, S. (2014) Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 23-23
Council of Europe Committee for the Development of Sport (1988) Eurofit: Handbook for the EUROFIT tests of physical fitness. Italy: Edigraf editorial grafica
Craven, R.G., Marsh, H.W. (2008) The centrality of the Self-Concept construct for psychological wellbeing and unlocking human potential: Implications for child and educational psychologists. Educational and Child Psychology, 25(2), 104-118
Crocker, P.R.E., Eklund, R.C., Kowalski, K.C. (2000) Children's physical activity and physical self-perceptions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(6), 383-394
Garn, A.C., Morin, A.J.S., Martin, J., Centeio, E., Shen, B., Kulik, N., Somers, C., Mccaughtry, N. (2016) A reciprocal effects model of children's body fat Self-Concept: Relations with physical Self-Concept and physical activity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 38(3), 255-267
Gomes, R., Gonçalves, S., Costa, J. (2015) Exercise, eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being: A study with Portuguese adolescents. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 47(1), 66-74
Grund, A., Dilba, B., Forberger, K., Krause, H., Siewers, M., Rieckert, H., Müller, M.J. (2000) Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, muscle strength and nutritional state in 5to 11-year-old children. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(5-6), 425-438
Hallal, P.C., Victora, C.G., Azevedo, M.R., Wells, J.C.K. (2006) Adolescent physical activity and health. Sports Medicine, 36(12), 1019-1030
Hamer, M., Brunner, E.J., Bell, J., Batty, G.D., Shipley, M., Akbaraly, T., Singh-Manoux, A., Kivimaki, M. (2013) Physical Activity patterns over 10 years in relation to body mass index and waist circumference: The Whitehall II cohort study. Obesity, 21(12), 755-761
Hill, G., Hannon, J.C. (2008) An analysis of middle school students' physical education physical activity preferences. Physical Educator, 65(4), 180-194
Isler, A.K., Asci, F.H., Kosar, S.N. (2002) Relationships among physical Activity levels, psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development of primary education students. Journal of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport, and Dance, 38(2), 13-17
Janssen, I., Leblanc, A.G. (2010) Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), 40
Jekauc, D., Reimers, A.K., Wagner, M.O., Woll, A. (2012) Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of the compliance with the physical activity guidelines in children and adolescents in Germany. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 714-714
Jekauc, D., Wagner, M.O., Herrmann, C., Hegazy, K., Woll, A. (2017) Does physical Self-Concept mediate the relationship between motor abilities and physical activity in adolescents and young adults?. PLoS One, 12(1), e0168539-e0168539
Kling, K.C., Hyde, J.S., Showers, C.J., Buswell, B.N. (1999) Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(4), 470-500
Klomsten, A.T., Skaalvik, E.M., Espnes, G.A. (2004) Physical Self-Concept and sports: Do gender differences still exist?. Sex Roles, 50(1/2), 119-127
Kowalski, K.C., Crocker, P.R.E., Kowalski, N.P. (1997) Convergent validity of the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 9(4), 342-352
Lazarević, D., Radisavljević, S., Milanović, I. (2008) Relations between physical self-concept and physical exercise of primary school pupils. Zbornik Instituta za pedagoška istraživanja, vol. 40, br. 2, str. 306-326
Lazarević, D., Radisavljević-Janić, S., Milanović, I., Lazarević, L.B. (2011) Physical Self-Concept of normal-weight and overweight adolescents: Gender specificities. Zbornik Instituta za pedagoška istraživanja, vol. 43, br. 2, str. 347-365
Marsh, H.W., Craven, R.G. (2006) Reciprocal effects of Self-Concept and performance from a multidimensional perspective: beyond seductive pleasure and unidimensional perspectives. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 133-163
Marsh, H.W., Hau, K.T., Sung, R.Y.T., Yu, C.W. (2007) Childhood obesity, gender, actual-ideal body image discrepancies, and physical Self-Concept in Hong Kong children: Cultural differences in the value of moderation. Developmental Psychology, 43(3), 647-662
Marsh, H.W., Morin, A.J.S., Parker, P.D. (2015) Physical Self-Concept changes in a selective sport high school: A longitudinal cohort-sequence analysis of the big-fish-little-pond effect. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(2), 150-163
Marsh, H.W., Papaioannou, A., Theodorakis, Y. (2006) Causal ordering of physical Self-Concept and exercise behavior: Reciprocal effects model and the influence of physical education teachers. Health Psychology, 25(3), 316-328
Marsh, H.W., Peart, N.D. (1988) Competitive and cooperative physical fitness training programs for girls: Effects on physical fitness and multidimensional self-concepts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(4), 390-407
Marsh, H.W., Redmayne, R.S. (1994) A multidimensional physical Self-Concept and its relations to multiple components of physical fitness. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(1), 43-55
Marsh, H.W., Richards, G.E., Johnson, S., Roche, L., Tremayne, P. (1994) Physical self-description questionnaire: Psychometric properties and a multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations to existing instruments. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(3), 270-305
Mayorga, D., Viciana, J., Cocca, A. (2012) Relationship between physical Self-Concept and health-related physical fitness in Spanish schoolchildren. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 659-668
Mcauley, E., Blissmer, B. (2000) Self-efficacy determinants and consequences of physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 28, 85-88
Mcdevitt, T.M., Ormrod, J.E. (2002) Child development and education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
Milanović, I., Radisavljević-Janić, S. (2015) Monitoring the physical fitness of elementary school students in physical education classes. Beograd: Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
Milanović, I., Radisavljević-Janić, S., Živković, M., Mirkov, D. (2019) Health-related physical fitness levels and prevalence of obesity in Serbian elementary schoolchildren. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 36, 6-12
Morano, M., Colella, D., Robazza, C., Bortoli, L., Capranica, L. (2011) Physical self-perception and motor performance in normal-weight, overweight and obese children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(3), 465-473
Nader, P.R., Bradley, R.H., Houts, R.M., McRitchie, S.L., O'Brien, M. (2008) Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years. JAMA, 300(3), 295-305
Ng, M., Fleming, T., Robinson, M., Thomson, B., Graetz, N., Margono, C., Abraham, J.P. (2013) Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet, 384, 766-781
O'Dea, J.A., Abraham, S. (1999) Association between Self-Concept and body weight, gender, and pubertal development among male and female adolescents. Adolescence, 34, 69-70
Okely, A.D., Booth, M.L., Patterson, J.W. (2001) Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(11), 1899-1904
Ortega, F.B., Artero, E.G., Ruiz, J.R., España-Romero, V., Jiménez-Pavón, D., Vicente-Rodríguez, G., Ciarapica, D. (2011) Physical fitness levels among European adolescents: The HELENA study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(1), 20-29
Radisavljević-Janić, S., Jurak, G., Milanović, I., Lazarević, D., Kovač, M., Novak, D. (2014) Physical Self-Concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: A pilot study. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119(2), 629-649
Radisavljević-Janić, S., Milanović, I., Lazarević, D. (2012) Physical activity in adolescence: Age and gender differences. Journal of Education, 61, 183-194
Riddoch, C.J., Bo, A.L., Wedderkopp, N., Harro, M., Klasson-Heggebø, L., Sardinha, L.B., Cooper, A.R., Ekelund, U.L.F. (2004) Physical activity levels and patterns of 9-and 15-yr-old European children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36(1), 86-92
Rizzo, N.S., Ruiz, J.R., Oja, L., Veidebaum, T., Sjöström, M. (2008) Associations between physical activity, body fat, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) in adolescents: Rhe European Youth Heart Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 586-592
Sallis, J.F., Prochaska, J.J., Taylor, W.C. (2000) A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32, 963-975
Schipke, D., Freund, P.A. (2012) A meta-analytic reliability generalization of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 789-797
Schmidt, M., Valkanover, S., Roebers, C., Conzelmann, A. (2013) Promoting a functional physical Self-Concept in physical education: Evaluation of a 10-week intervention. European Physical Education Review, 19, 232-255
Sung, R.Y.T., Yu, C.W., So, R.C.H., Lam, P.K.W., Hau, K.T. (2005) Self-perception of physical competences in preadolescent overweight Chinese children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 101-106
Thibault, H., Contrand, B., Saubusse, E., Baine, M., Maurice-Tison, S. (2010) Risk factors for overweight and obesity in French adolescents: Physical activity, sedentary behavior and parental characteristics. Nutrition, 26(2), 192-200
Trautwein, U., Gerlach, E., Lüdtke, O. (2008) Athletic classmates, physical Self-Concept, and free-time physical activity: A longitudinal study of frame of reference effects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 988-1001
Trost, S.G., Pate, R.R., Sallis, J.F., Freedson, P.S., Taylor, W.C., Dowda, M., Sirard, J. (2002) Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34, 350-355
Voss, C., Dean, P.H., Gardner, R.F., Duncombe, S.L., Harris, K.C. (2017) Validity and reliability of the physical activity questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) and adolescents (PAQ-A) in individuals with congenital heart disease. PLoS One, 12(4), 175806-175806
Whitehead, S., Biddle, S. (2008) Adolescent girls' perceptions of physical activity: A focus group study. European Physical Education Review, 14(2), 243-262
World Health Organization (2010) Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva,, 23 April, 2019
Zick, C.D., Smith, K.R., Brown, B.B., Fan, J.X., Kowaleski-Jones, L. (2007) Physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 4, 125-137


article language: Serbian, English
document type: Original Scientific Paper
DOI: 10.5937/fizkul2002000R
received: 29/12/2020
accepted: 07/05/2021
published online: 07/09/2021
published in SCIndeks: 26/01/2022
peer review method: double-blind
Creative Commons License 4.0

Related records

No related records