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2017, vol. 56, br. 3, str. 70-76
Mehanizmi zaštitnog delovanja fizičke aktivnosti na pojavu, tok i funkcionalni oporavak od moždanog udara
aUniverzitet u Nišu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
bUniverzitet u Nišu, Medicinski fakultet + Klinički centar Niš, Klinika za neurologiju
Sažetak
Cilj ovog preglednog istraživanja bio je da se utvrde mehanizmi uticaja fizičke aktivnosti na pojavu ishemijskog moždanog udara, na nivo oštećenja moždanog tkiva i kliničku sliku oboljenja, kao i na nivo funkcionalnog oporavka posle ovog oboljenja. Mehanizam po kom fizička aktivnost sprečava nastanak moždanog udara je multifaktorski. Zaštitni efekti su najčešće u vezi sa modifikacijom vaskularnih faktora rizika, redukcijom neuralne apoptoze, cerebralnog edema i veličine infarkta. Fizička aktivnost povećava nivoe nekih biohumoralnih faktora, koji imaju značajnu zaštitnu funkciju za rast ćelija i neuroplastičnost. Fizička aktivnost stimuliše neurogenezu i angiogenezu, sprečava disfunkciju krvno-moždane barijere i smanjuje zapaljenski odgovor i kontroliše glutamatergičnu ekscitotoksičnost. Na ovaj način se poboljšava cerebrovaskularna funkcija, povećava tolerancija nervnog tkiva na hipoksiju i smanjuje nivo oštećenja. Na taj način se smanjuju znaci kliničkog ispoljavanja, što rezultira boljim funkcionalnim oporavkom i manjom stopom smrtnosti od moždanog udara. Fizička aktivnost dovodi do povećanja tolerancije moždanog tkiva na ishemiju, posredstvom povećanih nivoa zaštitnih heat shock proteina. Fizička aktivnost povećava nivo TNFα, koji vremenom smanjuje delovanje svojih receptora i na taj način se ograničava zapaljensko oštećenje koje u patogenezi ishemijskog moždanog udara ima najznačajniju ulogu. Takođe, fizička aktivnost je značajan faktor u prevenciji prekomerne uhranjenosti i gojaznosti, koji su vodeći faktori rizika za nastanka moždanog udara. Najveći broj studija je upućivao na zaštitne efekte fizičke aktivnosti za nastanak, tok i ishod moždanog udara. Primena fizičke aktivnosti, čak i u ranom uzrastu, smanjuje vaskularne faktore rizika i na taj način prevenira nastanak moždanog udara. Mehanizmi prevencije posreduju kompleksnim dejstvima u metaboličkim procesima.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5633/amm.2017.0311
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 15.03.2018.
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