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2004, vol. 58, br. 3-4, str. 445-454
Uticaj mikroklime na ishranu svinja
aUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Poljoprivredni fakultet
bInstitut za stočarstvo, Beograd-Zemun
cUniverzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet
Ključne reči: donja kritična temperatura; gornja kritična temperatura; amonijak
Sažetak
U radu je analiziran efekat parametara mikroklime na proizvodnju svinja Najveći uticaj na visinu donje i gornje kritične temperature (DKT i GKT) ima telesna masa svinja, kondicija, visina konzumacije hrane, brzina kretanja vazduha, izolovanost objekta, tip poda, gubitak toplote zračenjem, sistem držanja i tako dalje. Kod prasadi na sisi i posle zalučenja temperatura ambijenta niža od DKT najčešće je problem koji uzrokuje smanjenje dnevnog prirasta, povećanje utroška hrane i pojavljivanje indigestija i proliva. Kod svinja u porastu i tovu temperatura niža od DKT uzrokuje povećanje potrošnje i pogoršanje konverzije hrane, dok je uticaj na dnevni prirast manji. Kod suprasnih krmača DKT varira u vrlo širokom intervalu od 12 do 23 oC u zavisnosti od kondicije krmače, količine hrane, sistema držanja i kvaliteta smeštaja. Visoka temperatura je problem kod krmača u laktaciji pošto uzrokuje smanjenje potrošnje hrane, količine mleka i povećanja gubitaka hranljivih materija iz organizma, što negativno deluje na kasniju reproduktivnu efikasnost.
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