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2008, vol. 17, br. 2, str. 7-21
Kompeticija - najčešći oblik interakcija između useva i korova
Institut za kukuruz 'Zemun polje', Beograd-Zemun
Projekat:
Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 20007: Razvoj tehnologije gajenja kukuruza sa ekološkim pristupom

Ključne reči: kompeticija; usev; korovi
Sažetak
Odnosi (interakcije) između biljaka mogu biti pozitivni, negativni i neutralni. Kompeticija je najzastupljeniji oblik negativnih interakcija u agrofitocenozama. Jedna od opšte prihvaćenih definicija kompeticije je: 'Međusobno suprotstavljanje organizama (vrste, populacije) prilikom iskorišćavanja prirodnih resursa u uslovima njihovog deficita'. Kompeticija je dinamičan proces i pored interspecijske (usev-korov), uvek dolazi i do intraspecijske kompeticije (usev-usev ili korov-korov). Kompetitivna sposobnost biljaka se može ispoljiti na dva načina. Prvi način je sposobnost useva da kompeticijski deluje na korove, smanjujući njihovu biomasu i produkciju semena. Drugi način je sposobnost useva da toleriše kompeticijsko delovanje korova dajući istovremeno visoke prinose. Kompeticija kao najčešći oblik interakcija između useva i korova zavisi od mnogih faktora i može imati široku praktičnu primenu u sistemu mera za kontrolu zakorovljenosti. Mere kontrole korova su jedan od prirodnih ili alternativnih načina rešavanja problema zakorovljenosti jer je u poslednjih desetak godina poraslo interesovanje za mere suzbijanja korova koje se manje oslanjaju na primenu herbicida. Kao rezultat, primena mera gajenja kojima se deluje na interakcije usev-korov kao što su kompetitivniji genotipovi, gustina gajenja useva, prostorni raspored gajenih biljaka, količina i mesto primene mineralnih đubriva i dr., uticala je na stvaranje novog prostora za istraživanja u oblasti interakcija između useva i korova. Intenzitet kompeticijskog delovanja useva, posebno širokoredih kao što je kukuruz, je uglavnom određen gustinom i prostornim rasporedom biljaka.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 01.12.2008.