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2011, vol. 27, br. 3, str. 599-614
Višegodišnje krmne trave, od oplemenjivanja do zdrave hrane za preživare
aInstitut za krmno bilje, Kruševac
bInstitut za stočarstvo, Beograd-Zemun

e-adresadejan.sokolovic@ikbks.com
Projekat:
Poboljšanje genetičkog potencijala i tehnologija proizvodnje krmnog bilja u funkciji održivog razvoja stočarstva (MPNTR - 31057)

Sažetak
Krmne trave umerenog klimata su glavne komponente travnjaka koji se prostiru na 40,5% svetskog kopna, odnosno na 30 do 40% poljoprivrednog zemljišta u Evropi. Višegodišnje trave pokrivaju zemljište, obezbeđujući stanište i izvor hrane za domaće životinje i na taj način unapređuju stočarsku proizvodnju i doprinose ruralnom razvoju sa poljoprivrednog i ekonomskog aspekta. Trave su prirodna hrana za preživare. Pošto su bogate celulozom, obezbeđuju kabastu komponentu neophodnu za pravilnu funkciju rumena preživara. Ako se konzumiraju u ranijoj fazi, visoko su svarljive i sadrže puno energije. U toj fazi takođe imaju visok nivo minerala i proteina što zadovoljava veliki deo potreba domaćih životinja. Travnjaci obično produkuju veći deo krme konzumirane od strane preživara tokom sezone ispaše. Tokom čuvanja preživara u stajama, seno i silaža od višegodišnjih trava su najbitniji deo obroka. Sve domaće sorte višegodišnjih trava u Srbiji karakterišu visoki prinosi i kvalitet dobijene biomase u lokalnim agroekološkim uslovima i u različitim sistemima iskorišćavanja. Pored ovih osobina koje predstavljaju esencijalne oplemenjivačke ciljeve postoji dosta različitih programa selekcije koji se razlikuju usled različitosti vrsta višegodišnjih trava i kriterijuma oplemenjivanja. Intenziviranje proizvodnje i iskorišćavanja krmnog bilja posebno tokom druge polovine 20. veka vodilo je drastičnom redukovanju broja vrsta trava u sejanim smešama kao i na prirodnim travnjacima. Samo je mali broj vrsta kao što su ljuljevi, mačji rep, ježevica i vijuci bio podesan za intenzivan način iskorišćavanja travnjaka. Međutim od 1980 pa na ovamo u Evropi su mnogi sistemi proizvodnje krmnog bilja deintenzivirani, pa divlje i ostale vrste selekcionisanh višegodišnjih trava dobijaju na značaju. Primetno je da će zastupljenost travnjaka i značaj višegodišnjih trava kao stočne hrane rasti u budućnosti rastom tražnje za stočarskim proizvodima i rastom kupovne moći i standarda ljudskog društva u celini.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: rad po pozivu
DOI: 10.2298/BAH1103599S
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 23.11.2011.