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2015, br. 35, str. 37-51
Fizičke metode suzbijanja korova korišćenjem malčeva sa mogućnošću primene u lekovitom bilju
aInstitut za proučavanje lekovitog bilja 'Dr Josif Pančić', Beograd
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet
Projekat:
Razvoj integrisanih sistema upravljanja štetnim organizmima u biljnoj proizvodnji sa ciljem prevazilaženja rezistentnosti i unapređenja kvaliteta i bezbednosti hrane (MPNTR - 46008)

Ključne reči: fizičke metode suzbijanja korova; malč; malč folije
Sažetak
Fizičke metode suzbijanja korova u lekovitom bilju obuhvataju veliki broj mera, a mi smo detaljnije opisali korišćenje živih malčeva i malč prostirki. Ove metode suzbijanja korova se mogu koristiti u kombinaciji sa drugim metodama u okviru integralnih mera suzbijanja korova, kao i u organskoj poljoprivredi. Malčiranje predstavlja prekrivanje zemljišta pri čemu se mogu koristiti biorazgradivi malčevi ili različite malč folije. Glavne prednosti organskih malčeva su te što se mogu sakupiti u prirodi i samim tim pojeftiniti proizvodnju. Pored toga, prednosti njihovog korišćenja se vide i u tome što su biorazgradive i što nemaju štetne efekte na životnu sredinu. Fizičke metode suzbijanja korova mogu da dovedu do pozitivnih efekata, s obzirom da suzbijaju korove u lekovitom bilju i povrću, pa tako doprinose povećanju prinosa. Ukoliko se koristi živi malč, koji pored pozitivnih mera suzbijanja korova može dovesti i do negativnih efekata potrošnje neophodnih materija iz zemljišta, pa se samim tim stvara kompeticija između gajene vrste i živog malča oko potrebnih materija iz zemljišta. Pored toga, živi malč može dovesti i do gušenja i smanjenja prinosa gajene vrste, a ne samo do smanjenja pojave korova. Zbog toga se mora posvetiti posebna pažnja u odabiru živog malča, da ne bi došlo do navedenih negativnih efekata. U ovom radu smo izdvojili iskustva prilikom korišćenja različitih biorazgradivih malčeva (slama, iseckane novine, biorazgradive folije, šljunak i kompost), a posebno je naglašena njihova primena u lekovitom bilju. Predstavljeni načini malčiranja, kao vrsta fizičke metode suzbijanja korova, imaju pozitivne efekte i predlaže se njihova upotreba u lekovitom bilju.
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O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5937/leksir1535037M
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 03.02.2016.

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