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2013, vol. 41, iss. 3, pp. 350-361
Etheric oils and plant extracts of importance for plant protection
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture

emailvukovic@polj.uns.ac.rs
Project:
Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety (MESTD - 46008)

Abstract
A number of cultivated plant species and plants from spontaneous flora, i.e. about 866 species, contain substances with pesticidal activity (insecticidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, bactericidal, herbicidal, virucidal and rodenticidal). Classification of botanical pesticides is based on the type of target organism, thus all botanicals can be divided in: botanical fungicides, herbicides and zoocides. Botanicals i.e. plant based pesticides can be obtained from plants using different methods of extraction, although the most frequently used are etheric oils and plant extracts. The extraction of eteric oils from plants includes several processes (distillation, cold pressing, extraction with organic solvents and supercritical extraction). Preparation of plant extracts, especially the raw extract, is very simple procedure. However, for preparation of commercial extracts, several technological processes are used: discontinuous processes (maceration, digestion and turbo-extraction), continuous processes (percolation and repercolation) and circulatory extractions. Modern technology includes extraction with supercritical fluids, microwave and ultrasound extraction using alcohol, less polar solvents (acetone, hexane, ether etc.), polar solvents (propylene glycol, glycerol etc.) and mineral oils. Etheric oils and plant extracts are gaining in importance due to novel approaches in plant protection. Hence there is a growing interest in research and application of botanicals, especially in organic plant production as well as productions conceptualized on reduced use of chemical pesticides.
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article language: Serbian
document type: unclassified
published in SCIndeks: 20/03/2014

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