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2009, vol. 33, iss. 1, pp. 58-68
Scientific findings and adaptability of Nmin. method to the climatic and soil conditions of Serbia
aUniversity of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture
bInstitute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad
Keywords: Nmin. method; field trials; depth of sampling; mineral nitrogen
Abstract
Of the 16 essential (biogenbous) elements, nitrogen has definitely been most extensively studied, first of all because of its role in physiological processes taking place in plants and then because of risks resulting from nitrogen pollution of soils, water, animal feed and human food. For more than a century nitrogen is in the focus of attention of a large number of researchers who strove to explain the complex mechanisms of nitrogen accumulation, transformation and removal from the soil, as well as to determine the regularities of its rapid changes in the soil. Determination of N fertilizer doses, method and date of its application have been research topics of all agrobiological disciplines ever since the beginning of its use in crop production. In the last two decades of the 20th century, the 'test of residual mineral nitrogen' or the so-called Nmin. method was accepted as reliable for determination of nitrogen requirements in crop production and it was adopted in West Europe, the United States, west Canada as well as in our country. According of the available literature, the Nmin. method was used for the first time in the early 1900s (King Whitson, 1901, 1902; King 1905; Buckman, 1910; Call 1914), but only at the end of the 20th century did it become the referent method for N fertilization of primarily winter crops in several countries including ours. The concept of the Nmin. method as practiced in Germany (Wehrman and Scharpft 1978) had been adopted in our country for N dosing and application. Adaptation of the Nmin. method to the local soil and climatic conditions was subject to intensive work in the last two decades of the 20th century (Rajković 1978, Milošević 1983, Bogdanović 1985, 2000, Marinković 1986, Malešević 1989). The work included experiments as well as the N fertilization practice. The adaptation of the N-min. method involved the following activities: - Field trial (the so-called Nmin. trials) on different soil types and under different crops; - Trials on fallow soil, to estimate mineralization capacity of soil during growing season (total soluble N); - Monitoring nitrate movement in the root system zone and nitrate migration outside the zone of active root system (depending on soil type and precipitation level); - Distribution of mineral nitrogen in the root system zone immediately before first top-dressing; - Sampling date and method; - Area represented by an average sample; - Depth of sampling for various crops; - Choice of most convenient method for determination of mineral nitrogen in the soil at current moisture level; - Based on the measured parameters, data are provided for yield planned, soil type and N dose needed by the crop (a formula); - Date and method of N top-dressing are determined for specific crops. - The early 1990s, the Nmin. method was included in the Soil Fertility and Fertilization Control System as the referent method for N fertilization in crop production. Ever since its introduction, nitrogen fertilization according to the Nmin. method which had been adapted to the local soil and climatic condition, became a regular practice in the crop production in Serbia.
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article language: Serbian
document type: Original Scientific Paper
published in SCIndeks: 09/02/2010

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